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An Electrokinetic Separation Route to Source Dialysate from Excess Fluid in Blood

  • Beatrise Berzina
    Beatrise Berzina
    Department of Chemistry, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Iowa State University of Science and Technology, 1605 Gilman Hall, Ames, Iowa 50011, United States
  •  and 
  • Robbyn K. Anand*
    Robbyn K. Anand
    Department of Chemistry, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Iowa State University of Science and Technology, 1605 Gilman Hall, Ames, Iowa 50011, United States
    *E-mail: [email protected]
Cite this: Anal. Chem. 2018, 90, 6, 3720–3726
Publication Date (Web):February 21, 2018
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.7b02584
Copyright © 2018 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract

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    To improve the health of patients with end-stage renal disease, there is a clear need for slow, continuous hemodialysis, and the primary barrier to a wearable device is the requirement of a large reservoir of dialysate. We describe an electrokinetic means of producing dialysate from the excess fluid extant in the peripheral blood of patients undergoing therapy. A critical feature of this process is the retention of essential components of blood, especially serum albumin. In progress toward this goal, we demonstrate the separation of charged from neutral species in blood plasma at a branched microchannel junction by ion concentration polarization (ICP). Further, we introduce a method that reduces the opportunity for damage to proteins and prevents electrode biofouling. The present approach results in as high as 99.7% retention of albumin and successful separation of neutral metabolites and excess fluid to be utilized as a precursor to dialysate.

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    The Supporting Information is available free of charge on the ACS Publications website at DOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.7b02584.

    • Fluorescence micrographs detailing the evolution of the IDZ during evaluation of device lifetime; plots showing run-to-run and device-to-device variation in performance; control experiments regarding the impact of device configuration on neutral dye depletion; results of voltammetric characterization of protein fouling on driving electrode (PDF)

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    This article is cited by 16 publications.

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    4. Vasileios A. Papadimitriou, Loes I. Segerink, Jan C. T. Eijkel. Free Flow Ion Concentration Polarization Focusing (FF-ICPF). Analytical Chemistry 2020, 92 (7) , 4866-4874. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.9b04526
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    9. Kira L. Rahn, Sommer Y. Osman, Quinlan G. Pollak, Robbyn K. Anand. Electrokinetic focusing of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein via ion concentration polarization in a paper-based lateral flow assay. Analytical Methods 2024, 15 https://doi.org/10.1039/D3AY00990D
    10. Sungu Kim, Makrand A. Khanwale, Robbyn K. Anand, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian. Computational framework for resolving boundary layers in electrochemical systems using weak imposition of Dirichlet boundary conditions. Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 2022, 205 , 103749. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.finel.2022.103749
    11. Aparna Krishnamurthy, Robbyn K. Anand. Recent advances in microscale extraction driven by ion concentration polarization. TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry 2022, 148 , 116537. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trac.2022.116537
    12. Beatrise Berzina, Sungu Kim, Umesha Peramune, Kumar Saurabh, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Robbyn K. Anand. Out-of-plane faradaic ion concentration polarization: stable focusing of charged analytes at a three-dimensional porous electrode. Lab on a Chip 2022, 22 (3) , 573-583. https://doi.org/10.1039/D1LC01011E
    13. Majid Gholinejad, Ali Jabari Moghadam, Dinh-Tuan Phan, Amir K. Miri, Seyed Ali Mousavi Shaegh. Design and application of ion concentration polarization for preconcentrating charged analytes. Physics of Fluids 2021, 33 (5) https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0038914
    14. Beatrise Berzina, Robbyn K. Anand. Tutorial review: Enrichment and separation of neutral and charged species by ion concentration polarization focusing. Analytica Chimica Acta 2020, 1128 , 149-173. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2020.06.021
    15. Paula Montes, José A. Trejo González, María E. Araoz, Gabriela L. Iglesias, Ricardo M. Trujillo, Rossana E. Madrid, Adolfo M. Avila. Renewable carbon-based materials for enhanced ion concentration polarization in sustainable separation devices. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 2020, 8 (4) , 104001. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2020.104001
    16. Beatrise Berzina, Robbyn K. Anand. Continuous micellar electrokinetic focusing of neutral species driven by ion concentration polarization. Lab on a Chip 2019, 19 (13) , 2233-2240. https://doi.org/10.1039/C9LC00327D

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