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Olive Component Oleuropein Promotes β-Cell Insulin Secretion and Protects β-Cells from Amylin Amyloid-Induced Cytotoxicity

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† ‡ § ∥ Department of Biochemistry, Center for Drug Discovery, §Translational Obesity Research Center, School of Neuroscience, and Department of Human Nutrition, Foods, and Exercise, Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, United States
Cite this: Biochemistry 2017, 56, 38, 5035–5039
Publication Date (Web):August 22, 2017
Copyright © 2017 American Chemical Society

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    Oleuropein, a natural product derived from olive leaves, has reported anti-diabetic functions. However, detailed molecular mechanisms for how it affects β-cell functions remain poorly understood. Here, we present evidence that oleuropein promotes glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in β-cells. The effect is dose-dependent and stimulates the ERK/MAPK signaling pathway. We further demonstrated that oleuropein inhibits the cytotoxicity induced by amylin amyloids, a hallmark feature of type 2 diabetes. We demonstrated that these dual functions are structure-specific: we identified the 3-hydroxytyrosol moiety of oleuropein as the main functional entity responsible for amyloid inhibition, but the novel GSIS function requires the entire structure scaffold of the molecule.

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