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Pencil-on-Paper Humidity Sensor Treated with NaCl Solution for Health Monitoring and Skin Characterization

  • Guangyu Niu
    Guangyu Niu
    Department of Architecture and Art, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin, 300130, China
    More by Guangyu Niu
  • Zihan Wang
    Zihan Wang
    State Key Laboratory for Reliability and Intelligence of Electrical Equipment, Hebei Key Laboratory of Smart Sensing and Human-Robot Interaction, School of Mechanical Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300401, China
    More by Zihan Wang
  • Ye Xue
    Ye Xue
    State Key Laboratory of Reliability and Intelligence of Electrical Equipment, School of Health Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130, China
    More by Ye Xue
  • Jiayi Yan
    Jiayi Yan
    State Key Laboratory for Reliability and Intelligence of Electrical Equipment, Hebei Key Laboratory of Smart Sensing and Human-Robot Interaction, School of Mechanical Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300401, China
    More by Jiayi Yan
  • Ankan Dutta
    Ankan Dutta
    Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, United States
    More by Ankan Dutta
  • Xue Chen
    Xue Chen
    State Key Laboratory of Reliability and Intelligence of Electrical Equipment, Key Laboratory of Bioelectromagnetics and Neuroengineering of Hebei Province, School of Electrical Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130, China
    More by Xue Chen
  • Ya Wang
    Ya Wang
    State Key Laboratory for Reliability and Intelligence of Electrical Equipment, Hebei Key Laboratory of Smart Sensing and Human-Robot Interaction, School of Mechanical Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300401, China
    More by Ya Wang
  • Chaosai Liu
    Chaosai Liu
    State Key Laboratory for Reliability and Intelligence of Electrical Equipment, Hebei Key Laboratory of Smart Sensing and Human-Robot Interaction, School of Mechanical Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300401, China
    More by Chaosai Liu
  • Shuaijie Du
    Shuaijie Du
    State Key Laboratory of Reliability and Intelligence of Electrical Equipment, Key Laboratory of Bioelectromagnetics and Neuroengineering of Hebei Province, School of Electrical Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130, China
    More by Shuaijie Du
  • Langang Guo
    Langang Guo
    State Key Laboratory for Reliability and Intelligence of Electrical Equipment, Hebei Key Laboratory of Smart Sensing and Human-Robot Interaction, School of Mechanical Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300401, China
    More by Langang Guo
  • Peng Zhou
    Peng Zhou
    Tianjin Tianzhong Yimai Technology Development Co. Ltd., Tianjin 300384, China
    More by Peng Zhou
  • Huanyu Cheng*
    Huanyu Cheng
    Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, United States
    *Email: [email protected]
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  • , and 
  • Li Yang*
    Li Yang
    State Key Laboratory of Reliability and Intelligence of Electrical Equipment, School of Health Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130, China
    Tianjin Tianzhong Yimai Technology Development Co. Ltd., Tianjin 300384, China
    *Email: [email protected]
    More by Li Yang
Cite this: Nano Lett. 2023, 23, 4, 1252–1260
Publication Date (Web):December 30, 2022
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.2c04384
Copyright © 2022 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract

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    Although flexible humidity sensors are essential for human health monitoring, it is still challenging to achieve high sensitivity and easy disposal with simple, low-cost fabrication processes. This study presents the design and fabrication of highly reliable hand-drawn interdigital electrodes from pencil-on-paper treated with NaCl solution for highly sensitive hydration sensors working over a wide range of relative humidity (RH) levels from 5.6% to 90%. The applications of the resulting flexible humidity sensor go beyond the monitoring of respiratory rate and proximity to characterizations of human skin types and evaluations of skin barrier functions through insensible sweat measurements. The sensor array can also be integrated with a diaper to result in smart diapers to alert for an early diaper change. The design and fabrication strategies presented in this work could also be leveraged for the development of wearable, self-powered, and recyclable sensors and actuators in the future.

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    The Supporting Information is available free of charge at https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.nanolett.2c04384.

    • Photographs of the sensor and integrated devices; characterization of sensors prepared by different methods; sheet resistance of five sensors from the same batch; response of the moisture sensor on different paper substrates; characterization of the sensor prepared with different pencils; dependence of sensor response on the relative humidity; application of the hydration sensor and integrated devices for physiological signal monitoring, noncontact sensing characterization of the skin barrier function, and insensible/sensible sweat rate; circuit diagram of the integrated systems; demonstrations of the robust performance of the wireless respiratory monitoring system upon mechanical deformations; experimental setup for measuring the simulated sweating rate; and tables of the electrical properties of the pencil trace on the printing paper and the human subject information (PDF)

    • Operation of noncontact elevator control system (MP4)

    • Control of LED array from 15 cm (MP4)

    • Wireless respiratory monitoring system on a mobile phone application (MP4)

    • Smart diaper detection of incidents of urination and wetted diapers (MP4)

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    Most electronic Supporting Information files are available without a subscription to ACS Web Editions. Such files may be downloaded by article for research use (if there is a public use license linked to the relevant article, that license may permit other uses). Permission may be obtained from ACS for other uses through requests via the RightsLink permission system: http://pubs.acs.org/page/copyright/permissions.html.

    Cited By

    This article is cited by 3 publications.

    1. Jiaorui Chen, Kai Chen, Jiaqi Jin, Kai Wu, Yaqiang Wang, Jinyu Zhang, Gang Liu, Jun Sun. Outstanding Synergy of Sensitivity and Linear Range Enabled by Multigradient Architectures. Nano Letters 2023, 23 (24) , 11958-11967. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.3c04204
    2. Lingjun Zeng, Guanghui Gao. Stretchable Organohydrogel with Adhesion, Self-Healing, and Environment-Tolerance for Wearable Strain Sensors. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2023, 15 (24) , 28993-29003. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.3c05208
    3. Sumyea Sabrin, Debabrata K. Karmokar, Nemai C. Karmakar, Sung-Ha Hong, Habibullah Habibullah, Endre J. Szili. Opportunities of Electronic and Optical Sensors in Autonomous Medical Plasma Technologies. ACS Sensors 2023, 8 (3) , 974-993. https://doi.org/10.1021/acssensors.2c02579

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