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Encoding Active Device Elements at Nanowire Tips

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Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, United States
Department of Physics, Korea University, Seoul 136-701, Republic of Korea
§ Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, United States
Cite this: Nano Lett. 2016, 16, 7, 4713–4719
Publication Date (Web):June 23, 2016
Copyright © 2016 American Chemical Society

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    Semiconductor nanowires and other one-dimensional materials are attractive for highly sensitive and spatially confined electrical and optical signal detection in biological and physical systems, although it has been difficult to localize active electronic or optoelectronic device function at one end of such one-dimensional structures. Here we report a new nanowire structure in which the material and dopant are modulated specifically at only one end of nanowires to encode an active two-terminal device element. We present a general bottom-up synthetic scheme for these tip-modulated nanowires and illustrate this with the synthesis of nanoscale p–n junctions. Electron microscopy imaging verifies the designed p-Si nanowire core with SiO2 insulating inner shell and n-Si outer shell with clean p-Si/n-Si tip junction. Electrical transport measurements with independent contacts to the p-Si core and n-Si shell exhibited a current rectification behavior through the tip and no detectable current through the SiO2 shell. Electrical measurements also exhibited an n-type response in conductance versus water-gate voltage with pulsed gate experiments yielding a temporal resolution of at least 0.1 ms and ∼90% device sensitivity localized to within 0.5 μm from the nanowire p–n tip. In addition, photocurrent experiments showed an open-circuit voltage of 0.75 V at illumination power of ∼28.1 μW, exhibited linear dependence of photocurrent with respect to incident illumination power with an estimated responsivity up to ∼0.22 A/W, and revealed localized photocurrent generation at the nanowire tip. The tip-modulated concept was further extended to a top-down/bottom-up hybrid approach that enabled large-scale production of vertical tip-modulated nanowires with a final synthetic yield of >75% with >4300 nanowires. Vertical tip-modulated nanowires were fabricated into >50 individually addressable nanowire device arrays showing diode-like current–voltage characteristics. These tip-modulated nanowire devices provide substantial opportunity in areas ranging from biological and chemical sensing to optoelectronic signal and nanoscale photodetection.

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    The Supporting Information is available free of charge on the ACS Publications website at DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b02236.

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    Cited By

    This article is cited by 11 publications.

    1. Yuting Huang, Haifeng Liang, Yingli Zhang, Shujing Yin, Changlong Cai, Weiguo Liu, Tiantian Jia. Vertical Tip-to-Tip Interconnection p–n Silicon Nanowires for Plasmonic Hot Electron-Enhanced Broadband Photodetectors. ACS Applied Nano Materials 2021, 4 (2) , 1567-1575.
    2. Jukwan Na, Min-Ho Hong, Jun Shik Choi, Hankyul Kwak, Seungwoo Song, Hyoseok Kim, Youngcheol Chae, Eunji Cheong, Ju Hee Lee, Yong-beom Lim, Heon-Jin Choi. Real-Time Detection of Markers in Blood. Nano Letters 2019, 19 (4) , 2291-2298.
    3. Alex M. Lord, Quentin M. Ramasse, Despoina M. Kepaptsoglou, Priyanka Periwal, Frances M. Ross, and Steve P. Wilks . Stability of Schottky and Ohmic Au Nanocatalysts to ZnO Nanowires. Nano Letters 2017, 17 (11) , 6626-6636.
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    7. Yuanwen Jiang, Bozhi Tian. Inorganic semiconductor biointerfaces. Nature Reviews Materials 2018, 3 (12) , 473-490.
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    10. Jin Sik Choi, Kyoung-Ho Kim, You-Shin No. Spatially localized wavelength-selective absorption in morphology-modulated semiconductor nanowires. Optics Express 2017, 25 (19) , 22750.
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