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2D MXene-Based Electron Transport Layers for Nonhalogenated Solvent-Processed Stable Organic Solar Cells

  • Um Kanta Aryal
    Um Kanta Aryal
    Mads Clausen Institute, Center for Advanced Photovoltaics and Thin Film Energy Devices (SDU CAPE), University of Southern Denmark, Sønderborg 6400, Denmark
    SDU Climate Cluster, University of Southern Denmark, Odense 5230, Denmark
  • Hanna Pazniak
    Hanna Pazniak
    Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Grenoble INP, LMGP, Grenoble, CS 50257, Grenoble Cedex 1 38016, France
  • Tanya Kumari
    Tanya Kumari
    Mads Clausen Institute, Center for Advanced Photovoltaics and Thin Film Energy Devices (SDU CAPE), University of Southern Denmark, Sønderborg 6400, Denmark
    SDU Climate Cluster, University of Southern Denmark, Odense 5230, Denmark
    More by Tanya Kumari
  • Matthieu Weber
    Matthieu Weber
    Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Grenoble INP, LMGP, Grenoble, CS 50257, Grenoble Cedex 1 38016, France
  • Fredrik O. L. Johansson
    Fredrik O. L. Johansson
    Division of Applied Physical Chemistry, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Teknikringen 30, SE-114 28 Stockholm, Sweden
    Institut des Nanosciences de Paris, Sorbonne Universite, UMR CNRS 7588, F-75005 Paris, France
  • Noemi Vannucchi
    Noemi Vannucchi
    Institut des Nanosciences de Paris, Sorbonne Universite, UMR CNRS 7588, F-75005 Paris, France
    Division of X-ray Photon Science, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, 751 20 Uppsala, Sweden
  • Nadine Witkowski
    Nadine Witkowski
    Institut des Nanosciences de Paris, Sorbonne Universite, UMR CNRS 7588, F-75005 Paris, France
  • Vida Turkovic
    Vida Turkovic
    Mads Clausen Institute, Center for Advanced Photovoltaics and Thin Film Energy Devices (SDU CAPE), University of Southern Denmark, Sønderborg 6400, Denmark
    SDU Climate Cluster, University of Southern Denmark, Odense 5230, Denmark
  • Aldo Di Carlo
    Aldo Di Carlo
    Istituto di Struttura della Materia, CNR-ISM, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, Rome 00133, Italy
    CHOSE (Centre for Hybrid and Organic Solar Energy), Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, via del Politecnico 1, Rome 00133, Italy
  • , and 
  • Morten Madsen*
    Morten Madsen
    Mads Clausen Institute, Center for Advanced Photovoltaics and Thin Film Energy Devices (SDU CAPE), University of Southern Denmark, Sønderborg 6400, Denmark
    SDU Climate Cluster, University of Southern Denmark, Odense 5230, Denmark
    *Email: [email protected]
Cite this: ACS Appl. Energy Mater. 2023, 6, 9, 4549–4558
Publication Date (Web):April 19, 2023
https://doi.org/10.1021/acsaem.2c03789
Copyright © 2023 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract

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    Implementation of 2D materials is one of the promising routes for improving the efficiency and stability of organic solar cells (OSCs). Due to their tunable optical and electronic properties, MXenes, a family of 2D transition metal carbides and nitrides, have attracted considerable attention and demonstrated their potential for next-generation solar cells. In this work, Ti3C2Tx MXene was added into ZnO precursors and applied as a modified composite electron transport layer (ETL) in PM6:N3-based inverted OSCs. The nonhalogenated solvent o-xylene was employed as the active layer solvent for the development of stable, efficient, and eco-friendly OSCs. By optimizing the concentration of Ti3C2Tx in the ZnO ETL, the solar cells exhibited power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 14.1 and 13.7% for 0.5 and 2 wt % MXene, respectively, as compared to neat ZnO layer devices with a PCE of 14.9%. Interestingly, the MXene-based PM6:N3 OSC devices showed superior device stability compared to the reference cells. It is demonstrated that the MXene introduced in the composite ZnO-based ETL mitigates the photocatalytic decomposition of the organic active layer on the ZnO surface, as analyzed via optical spectroscopy and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which appears as a main reason for improved device stability. We thus report on the usage of MXene in green solvent-processed OSCs to enhance the lifetime of solar cells and thus address an important bottleneck in high-performance nonfullerene acceptor solar cells.

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    The Supporting Information is available free of charge at https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsaem.2c03789.

    • Experimental section, including device fabrication and characterization details, JV curves of solar cells for varying concentrations of the photoactive materials, optical transmittance spectra, normalized photovoltaic parameter evolution for continuous illumination under 1 sun and for storage in room temperature at ambient conditions, contact angles and surface energies results, and SCLC electron mobility calculations (PDF).

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    Cited By

    This article is cited by 3 publications.

    1. Xuejiao Tang, Yueju Chen, Haitao Liao, Tao Zheng, Chao Weng, Xiaoying Zhang, Ping Shen. Improving the Photovoltaic Performance of PBDB-T:PC71BM-Based Ternary Solar Cells by Employing Arylmethylene-Substituted Small Molecules as the Guest Acceptor. ACS Applied Energy Materials 2024, 7 (5) , 1993-2007. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsaem.3c03094
    2. Hariprasad Vadakke Neelamana, Sreelakshmi Madhavanunni Rekha, Sarpangala Venkataprasad Bhat. Ti3C2Tx MXene: A New Promising 2D Material for Optoelectronics. Chemistry of Materials 2023, 35 (18) , 7386-7405. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemmater.3c01660
    3. Sambathkumar Balasubramanian, Miguel Ángel León-Luna, Beatriz Romero, Morten Madsen, Vida Turkovic. Vitamin C for Photo-Stable Non-fullerene-acceptor-Based Organic Solar Cells. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2023, 15 (33) , 39647-39656. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.3c06321

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