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Efficient Polymer Solar Cells Enabled by Low Temperature Processed Ternary Metal Oxide as Electron Transport Interlayer with Large Stoichiometry Window

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Institute of Materials Research and Engineering (IMRE), Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602, Singapore
Microelectronics Research Centre, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78758, United States
*W. L. Leong. E-mail: [email protected]
Cite this: ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2015, 7, 21, 11099–11106
Publication Date (Web):May 15, 2015
Copyright © 2015 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract Image

    Highly efficient organic photovoltaic cells are demonstrated by incorporating low temperature solution processed indium zinc oxide (IZO) as cathode interlayers. The IZOs are synthesized using a combustion synthesis method, which enables low temperature processes (150–250 °C). We investigated the IZO films with different electron mobilities (1.4 × 10–3 to 0.23 cm2/(V·s)), hydroxide–oxide content (38% to 47%), and surface roughness (0.19–5.16 nm) by modulating the ternary metal oxide stoichiometry. The photovoltaic performance was found to be relatively insensitive to the composition ratio of In:Zn over the range of 0.8:0.2 to 0.5:0.5 despite the differences in their electrical and surface properties, achieving high power conversion efficiencies of 6.61%–7.04%. Changes in composition ratio of IZO do not lead to obvious differences in energy levels, diode parameters and morphology of the photoactive layer, as revealed by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), dark current analysis and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) measurements, correlating well with the large IZO stoichiometry window that enables efficient photovoltaic devices. Our results demonstrate the robustness of this ETL system and provide a convenient approach to realize a wide range of multicomponent oxides and compatible with processing on flexible plastic substrates.

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    Survey scan for In2O3 and IZO thin films with different molar ratios of In:Zn, composition of precursor solutions and relative composition of resultant IZO films, XPS spectra showing M-O-M lattice oxygen and M-OH metal hydroxide oxygen, concentration of hydroxides in the IZO films, atomic force microscopy images of the combustion synthesized IZO films on ITO substrates, table summary of surface roughness of the IZO films and device parameters of IZO thin film transistors, typical X-ray diffraction (XRD) of combustion synthesized IZO (In:Zn = 0.7:0.3) at annealing temperature of 250 °C, current–voltage characteristics for IZO films on ITO substrate and top Al electrode, current–voltage characteristics of the organic solar cells in conventional structure; ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PTB7:PC71BM/Al, fit parameters for the dark JV curves of PTB7:PC71BM using IZO as ETLs, JV characteristics of inverted solar cells based on IZO ETL (with In:Zn = 0.5:0.5) with different illumination time, JV characteristics of inverted solar cells based on IZO ETL (with In:Zn = 0.7:0.3) under illumination, with and without the UV filter, as well as time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) plots for PTB7:PC61BM-d5 blend films. The Supporting Information is available free of charge on the ACS Publications website at DOI: 10.1021/acsami.5b02215.

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    Cited By

    This article is cited by 15 publications.

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