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High-Definition Nanoimprint Stamp Fabrication by Atomic Layer Etching

  • Sabbir A. Khan
    Sabbir A. Khan
    Division of Solid State Physics and NanoLund, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden
  • Dmitry B. Suyatin*
    Dmitry B. Suyatin
    Division of Solid State Physics and NanoLund, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden
    *E-mail: [email protected]
  • Jonas Sundqvist*
    Jonas Sundqvist
    Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems IKTS, Winterbergstrasse 28, 01277 Dresden, Germany
    *E-mail: [email protected]
  • Mariusz Graczyk
    Mariusz Graczyk
    Division of Solid State Physics and NanoLund, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden
  • Marcel Junige
    Marcel Junige
    Institute of Semiconductors and Microsystems, Technische Universität Dresden, D-01062 Dresden, Germany
  • Christoffer Kauppinen
    Christoffer Kauppinen
    Department of Electronics and Nanoengineering, Micronova, Aalto University, P.O. Box 13500, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland
  • Anders Kvennefors
    Anders Kvennefors
    Division of Solid State Physics and NanoLund, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden
  • Maria Huffman
    Maria Huffman
    Division of Solid State Physics and NanoLund, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden
  • , and 
  • Ivan Maximov*
    Ivan Maximov
    Division of Solid State Physics and NanoLund, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden
    *E-mail: [email protected]
    More by Ivan Maximov
Cite this: ACS Appl. Nano Mater. 2018, 1, 6, 2476–2482
Publication Date (Web):May 22, 2018
https://doi.org/10.1021/acsanm.8b00509
Copyright © 2018 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract

    Abstract Image

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) has the potential for low-cost and high-throughput nanoscale fabrication. However, the NIL quality and resolution are usually limited by the shape and size of the nanoimprint stamp features. Atomic layer etching (ALE) can provide a damage-free pattern transfer with ultimate etch control for features of all length scales, down to the atomic scale, and for all feature geometries, which is required for good quality and high-resolution nanoimprint stamp fabrication. Here, we present an ALE process for nanoscale pattern transfer and high-resolution nanoimprint stamp preparation. This ALE process is based on chemical adsorption of a monoatomic layer of dichloride (Cl2) on the silicon surface, followed by the removal of a monolayer of Cl2-modified silicon by argon bombardment. The nanopatterns of different geometries, loadings, and pitches were fabricated by electron beam lithography on a silicon wafer, and ALE was subsequently performed for pattern transfer using a resist as an etch mask. The post-ALE patterns allowed us to study the different effects and limitations of the process, such as trenching and sidewall tapering. The ALE-processed silicon wafers were used as hard nanoimprint stamps in a thermal nanoimprint process. Features as small as 30 nm were successfully transferred into a poly(methyl methacrylate) layer, which demonstrated the great potential of ALE in fabricating nanoimprint stamps with ultrahigh resolution.

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    The Supporting Information is available free of charge on the ACS Publications website at DOI: 10.1021/acsanm.8b00509.

    • Detailed XPS of pre- and post-ALE silicon surfaces (Figure S1) and SEM micrographs of large-scale uniform pattern transfer using the ALE process (Figure S2) and imprinted 200 and 400 nm pitch nanohole arrays (Figure S3) (PDF)

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    Most electronic Supporting Information files are available without a subscription to ACS Web Editions. Such files may be downloaded by article for research use (if there is a public use license linked to the relevant article, that license may permit other uses). Permission may be obtained from ACS for other uses through requests via the RightsLink permission system: http://pubs.acs.org/page/copyright/permissions.html.

    Cited By

    This article is cited by 7 publications.

    1. A. Mameli, M. A. Verheijen, A. J. M. Mackus, W. M. M. Kessels, F. Roozeboom. Isotropic Atomic Layer Etching of ZnO Using Acetylacetone and O2 Plasma. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2018, 10 (44) , 38588-38595. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.8b12767
    2. Christoffer Kauppinen. Atomic layer etching of indium tin oxide. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A 2024, 42 (2) https://doi.org/10.1116/6.0003170
    3. Peizhi Wang, Marco Castelli, Fengzhou Fang. Mechanism of photo-assisted atomic layer etching of chlorinated Si(111) surfaces: Insights from DFT/TDDFT calculations. Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing 2023, 153 , 107169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mssp.2022.107169
    4. Peizhi Wang, Fengzhou Fang. Real-time time-dependent DFT study of laser-enhanced atomic layer etching of silicon for damage-free nanostructure fabrication. Journal of Applied Physics 2022, 132 (14) https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0109818
    5. William Chiappim, Benedito Botan Neto, Michaela Shiotani, Júlia Karnopp, Luan Gonçalves, João Pedro Chaves, Argemiro da Silva Sobrinho, Joaquim Pratas Leitão, Mariana Fraga, Rodrigo Pessoa. Plasma-Assisted Nanofabrication: The Potential and Challenges in Atomic Layer Deposition and Etching. Nanomaterials 2022, 12 (19) , 3497. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12193497
    6. Peizhi Wang, Jinshi Wang, Fengzhou Fang. Study on Mechanisms of Photon-Induced Material Removal on Silicon at Atomic and Close-to-Atomic Scale. Nanomanufacturing and Metrology 2021, 4 (4) , 216-225. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41871-021-00116-4
    7. Nicklas Anttu, Henrik Mäntynen, Anastasiia Sorokina, Jari Turunen, Toufik Sadi, Harri Lipsanen. Applied electromagnetic optics simulations for nanophotonics. Journal of Applied Physics 2021, 129 (13) https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0041275