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Antiviral and Antibacterial Nanostructured Surfaces with Excellent Mechanical Properties for Hospital Applications

  • Jafar Hasan
    Jafar Hasan
    Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland 4000, Australia
    More by Jafar Hasan
  • Yanan Xu
    Yanan Xu
    Institute for Future Environments, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland 4000, Australia
    More by Yanan Xu
  • Tejasri Yarlagadda
    Tejasri Yarlagadda
    Institute of Health Biomedical Innovation (IHBI), Faculty of Health, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland 4000, Australia
    School of Biomedical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland 4000, Australia
  • Michael Schuetz
    Michael Schuetz
    Institute of Health Biomedical Innovation (IHBI), Faculty of Health, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland 4000, Australia
    Jamieson Trauma Institute, Metro North Hospital and Health Service, Herston, Queensland 4029, Australia
  • Kirsten Spann
    Kirsten Spann
    Institute of Health Biomedical Innovation (IHBI), Faculty of Health, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland 4000, Australia
    School of Biomedical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland 4000, Australia
  • , and 
  • Prasad KDV Yarlagadda*
    Prasad KDV Yarlagadda
    Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland 4000, Australia
    *Email: [email protected]
Cite this: ACS Biomater. Sci. Eng. 2020, 6, 6, 3608–3618
Publication Date (Web):May 7, 2020
Copyright © 2020 American Chemical Society

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    With the rise of bacterial and viral infections including the recent outbreak of coronavirus, the requirement for novel antimicrobial strategies is also rising with urgency. To solve this problem, we have used a wet etching technique to fabricate 23 nm wide nanostructures randomly aligned as ridges on aluminum (Al) 6063 alloy surfaces. The surfaces were etched for 0.5, 1, and 3 h. The surfaces were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, contact angle goniometry, nanoindentation and atomic force microscopy. Strains of the Gram negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the Gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus were used to evaluate the bacterial attachment behavior. For the first time, common respiratory viruses, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and rhinovirus (RV), were investigated for antiviral activity on nanostructured surfaces. It was found that the etched Al surfaces were hydrophilic and the nanoscale roughness enhanced with the etching time with Rrms ranging from 69.9 to 995 nm. Both bacterial cells of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were physically deformed and were nonviable upon attachment after 3 h on the etched Al 6063 surface. This nanoscale surface topography inactivated 92 and 87% of the attached P. aeruginosa and S. aureus cells, respectively. The recovery of infectious RSV was also reduced significantly within 2 h of exposure to the nanostructured surfaces compared to the smooth Al control surfaces. There was a 3–4 log10 reduction in the viability counts of rhinovirus after 24 h on the nanostructured surfaces. The nanostructured surfaces exhibited excellent durability as the surfaces sustained 1000 cycles of 2000 μN load without any damage. This is the first report that has shown the combined antibacterial and antiviral property of the nanostructured surface with excellent nanomechanical properties that could be potentially significant for use in hospital environments to stop the spread of infections arising from physical surfaces.

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    • Indentation load, EDX spectra, XPS spectra, zeta-potential analysis, and nanowear tests of the surfaces (PDF)

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