ACS Publications. Most Trusted. Most Cited. Most Read
My Activity

Silicon Nanosheets: Crossover between Multilayer Silicene and Diamond-like Growth Regime

View Author Information
Laboratorio MDM, IMM-CNR, via C. Olivetti 2, Agrate Brianza I-20864, Italy
Microelectronics Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78758, United States
§ ISM-CNR, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, Roma I-00133, Italy
Cite this: ACS Nano 2017, 11, 3, 3376–3382
Publication Date (Web):March 6, 2017
Copyright © 2017 American Chemical Society

    Article Views





    Other access options
    Supporting Info (1)»


    Abstract Image

    The structural and electronic properties of nanoscale Si epitaxially grown on Ag(111) can be tuned from a multilayer silicene phase, where the constitutive layers incorporate a mixed sp2/sp3 bonding, to other ordinary Si phases, such as amorphous and diamond-like Si. Based on comparative scanning tunneling microscopy and Raman spectroscopy investigations, a key role in determining the nanoscale Si phase is played by the growth temperature of the epitaxial deposition on Ag(111) substrate and the presence or absence of a single-layer silicene as a seed for the successive growth. Furthermore, when integrated into a field-effect transistor device, multilayer silicene exhibits a characteristic ambipolar charge carrier transport behavior that makes it strikingly different from other conventional Si channels and suggestive of a Dirac-like character of the electronic bands of the crystal. These findings spotlight the interest in multilayer silicene as a different nanoscale Si phase for advanced nanotechnology applications such as ultrascaled nanoelectronics and nanomembranes, as well as for fundamental exploration of quantum properties.

    Read this article

    To access this article, please review the available access options below.

    Get instant access

    Purchase Access

    Read this article for 48 hours. Check out below using your ACS ID or as a guest.


    Access through Your Institution

    You may have access to this article through your institution.

    Your institution does not have access to this content. You can change your affiliated institution below.

    Supporting Information

    Jump To

    The Supporting Information is available free of charge on the ACS Publications website at DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.7b00762.

    • Additional STM images (Figures S1 and S2); Raman spectra of SOI reference thin films (Figure S3), low-frequency modes (Figure S4), and ultraviolet SOR spectra (Figure S5), before and after delamination spectra (Figure S6), and aging spectra (Figure S7); control group devices (Figures S8 and S9); and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis (Figure S10) (PDF)

    Terms & Conditions

    Most electronic Supporting Information files are available without a subscription to ACS Web Editions. Such files may be downloaded by article for research use (if there is a public use license linked to the relevant article, that license may permit other uses). Permission may be obtained from ACS for other uses through requests via the RightsLink permission system:

    Cited By

    This article is cited by 60 publications.

    1. Agnieszka Stȩpniak-Dybala, Mariusz Krawiec. Formation of Silicene on Ultrathin Pb(111) Films. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 2019, 123 (27) , 17019-17025.
    2. Carlo Grazianetti, Stefania De Rosa, Christian Martella, Paolo Targa, Davide Codegoni, Paola Gori, Olivia Pulci, Alessandro Molle, Stefano Lupi. Optical Conductivity of Two-Dimensional Silicon: Evidence of Dirac Electrodynamics. Nano Letters 2018, 18 (11) , 7124-7132.
    3. Yuxiu Wang, Rui qi, Yingjie Jiang, Cuicui Sun, Guiling Zhang, Yangyang Hu, Zhao-Di Yang, Weiqi Li. Transport and Photoelectric Properties of 2D Silicene/MX2 (M = Mo, W; X = S, Se) Heterostructures. ACS Omega 2018, 3 (10) , 13251-13262.
    4. Ying Wang, Liangjun Li, Liting Yan, Xin Gu, Pengcheng Dai, Dandan Liu, Jon G. Bell, Guoming Zhao, Xuebo Zhao, K. Mark Thomas. Bottom-Up Fabrication of Ultrathin 2D Zr Metal–Organic Framework Nanosheets through a Facile Continuous Microdroplet Flow Reaction. Chemistry of Materials 2018, 30 (9) , 3048-3059.
    5. Paola De Padova, Haifeng Feng, Jincheng Zhuang, Zhi Li, Amanda Generosi, Barbara Paci, Carlo Ottaviani, Claudio Quaresima, Bruno Olivieri, Mariusz Krawiec, and Yi Du . Synthesis of Multilayer Silicene on Si(111)√3 × √3-Ag. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 2017, 121 (48) , 27182-27190.
    6. Regis Stephan, Mickael Derivaz, Marie-Christine Hanf, Didier Dentel, Natalia Massara, Ahmed Mehdaoui, Philippe Sonnet, and Carmelo Pirri . Tip-Induced Switch of Germanene Atomic Structure. The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 2017, 8 (18) , 4587-4593.
    7. Paola De Padova, Mariusz Krawiec. Dirac materials beyond graphene. 2024, 329-343.
    8. Battogtokh Jugdersuren, Xiao Liu, James C. Culbertson, Nadeemullah Mahadik, Owain Thomas, Yi Shu. Hydrogenated silicene grown by plasma enhanced chemical-vapor deposition. Journal of Applied Physics 2023, 134 (21)
    9. Nanyin Zhao, Kai Wang, Jun Li. 2D nonlayered tellurium nanosheets for self-powered photodetectors. Applied Physics A 2023, 129 (12)
    10. Christian Martella, Chiara Massetti, Daya Sagar Dhungana, Emiliano Bonera, Carlo Grazianetti, Alessandro Molle. Bendable Silicene Membranes. Advanced Materials 2023, 35 (49)
    11. Alessandro Molle, Christian Martella, Carlo Grazianetti. Two-Dimensional Epitaxial Xenes: Genesis, Synthesis, Main Properties, and Processing Paths for Technology Applications *. 2023, 409-410.
    12. Daya S. Dhungana, Chiara Massetti, Christian Martella, Carlo Grazianetti, Alessandro Molle. All-around encapsulation of silicene. Nanoscale Horizons 2023, 8 (10) , 1428-1434.
    13. Yuuki Adachi, Runnan Zhang, Xinbo Wang, Masahiro Fukuda, Taisuke Ozaki, Yoshiaki Sugimoto. Atomic arrangement of Si adatom on the Silicene/Ag(111) surface. Applied Surface Science 2023, 630 , 157336.
    14. Simona Achilli, Daya Sagar Dhungana, Federico Orlando, Carlo Grazianetti, Christian Martella, Alessandro Molle, Guido Fratesi. Crystal phase engineering of silicene by Sn-modified Ag(111). Nanoscale 2023, 15 (26) , 11005-11012.
    15. Franco Dinelli, Marco Brucale, Francesco Valle, Cesare Ascoli, Bruno Samorì, Marco Sartore, Manuela Adami, Riccardo Galletti, Stefano Prato, Barbara Troian, Cristiano Albonetti. Probing Italy: A Scanning Probe Microscopy Storyline. Micro 2023, 3 (2) , 549-565.
    16. Asif Hayat, Muhammad Sohail, Atef El Jery, Khadijah M. Al-Zaydi, Saleem Raza, Hamid Ali, Zeeshan Ajmal, Amir Zada, T.A. Taha, Israf Ud Din, Moonis Ali Khan, Mohammed A. Amin, Yas Al-Hadeethi, Abeer Z Barasheed, Yasin Orooji, Javid Khan, Mohd Zahid Ansari. Recent advances, properties, fabrication and opportunities in two-dimensional materials for their potential sustainable applications. Energy Storage Materials 2023, 59 , 102780.
    17. Yi-Hsun Chan, Che-Yi Lin, Yu-Chang Chou, Alice Chinghsuan Chang, Yen-Fu Lin, Yu-Ze Chen. Chloride-assisted synthesis of tellurene directly on SiO 2 /Si substrates: growth mechanism, thermal properties, and device applications. Materials Advances 2023, 4 (8) , 2008-2016.
    18. Xuebiao Deng, Huai Chen, Zhenyu Yang. Two-dimensional silicon nanomaterials for optoelectronics. Journal of Semiconductors 2023, 44 (4) , 041101.
    19. Laurence Masson, Geoffroy Prévot. Epitaxial growth and structural properties of silicene and other 2D allotropes of Si. Nanoscale Advances 2023, 5 (6) , 1574-1599.
    20. Guangcun Shan, Haoyi Tan, Ruguang Ma, Hongbin Zhao, Wei Huang. Recent progress in emergent two-dimensional silicene. Nanoscale 2023, 15 (7) , 2982-2996.
    21. Ye Lei, Deren Yang, Dongsheng Li. Enhanced Optical and Electronic Properties of Silicon Nanosheets by Phosphorus Doping Passivation. Materials 2023, 16 (3) , 1079.
    22. Daya S. Dhungana, Eleonora Bonaventura, Christian Martella, Carlo Grazianetti, Alessandro Molle. Solid phase crystallization of amorphous silicon at the two-dimensional limit. Nanoscale Advances 2023, 5 (3) , 668-674.
    23. Rajesh C. Junghare, Gopal S. Pranjale, Yerra Muralidhar, Ganesh C. Patil. Investigation of structural, electronic and transport properties of Silicene on Graphene heterostructure by ab-initio calculations. 2022, 1-4.
    24. Oleg E. Parfenov, Alexander N. Taldenkov, Dmitry V. Averyanov, Ivan S. Sokolov, Oleg A. Kondratev, Mikhail M. Borisov, Sergey N. Yakunin, Igor A. Karateev, Andrey M. Tokmachev, Vyacheslav G. Storchak. Layer-controlled evolution of electron state in the silicene intercalation compound SrSi 2. Materials Horizons 2022, 9 (11) , 2854-2862.
    25. V. P. Ponomarenko, V. S. Popov, S. V. Popov. 2D Structures Based Field-Effect Transistors (Review). Journal of Communications Technology and Electronics 2022, 67 (9) , 1134-1151.
    26. Eleonora Bonaventura, Daya S. Dhungana, Christian Martella, Carlo Grazianetti, Salvatore Macis, Stefano Lupi, Emiliano Bonera, Alessandro Molle. Optical and thermal responses of silicene in Xene heterostructures. Nanoscale Horizons 2022, 7 (8) , 924-930.
    27. David Garagnani, Paola De Padova, Carlo Ottaviani, Claudio Quaresima, Amanda Generosi, Barbara Paci, Bruno Olivieri, Mieczysław Jałochowski, Mariusz Krawiec. Evidence of sp2-like Hybridization of Silicon Valence Orbitals in Thin and Thick Si Grown on α-Phase Si(111)√3 × √3R30°-Bi. Materials 2022, 15 (5) , 1730.
    28. Gabriele Faraone, Md. Hasibul Alam, Xiao Xu, Zhaoying Dang, Li Tao, Deji Akinwande, Deepyanti Taneja. Integration paths for Xenes. 2022, 405-438.
    29. Y. You, C. Yang, X. Zhang, H. Lin, J. Shi. Emerging two-dimensional silicene nanosheets for biomedical applications. Materials Today Nano 2021, 16 , 100132.
    30. Mariusz Krawiec, Agnieszka Stępniak-Dybala, Andrzej Bobyk, Ryszard Zdyb. Magnetism in Au-Supported Planar Silicene. Nanomaterials 2021, 11 (10) , 2568.
    31. Rajesh C. Junghare, Ganesh C. Patil. Investigation of transport in edge passivated armchair silicene nanoribbon field effect transistor by ab-initio based Wannierised tight binding. Superlattices and Microstructures 2021, 156 , 106933.
    32. Carlo Grazianetti, Christian Martella. The Rise of the Xenes: From the Synthesis to the Integration Processes for Electronics and Photonics. Materials 2021, 14 (15) , 4170.
    33. H Mrezguia, L Giovanelli, Y Ksari, A Akremi, J-M Themlin. Unoccupied electronic states of 2D Si on Ag- 3 -Si(111). Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 2021, 33 (22) , 225002.
    34. Md. Sazzadur Rahman, Rokaia Laizu Naima, Khatuna Jannatun Shetu, Md. Mahabub Hossain, M. Shamim Kaiser, A. S. M. Sanwar Hosen, Md. Abdul Latif Sarker, Kelvin J. A. Ooi. Silicene Quantum Capacitance Dependent Frequency Readout to a Label-Free Detection of DNA Hybridization— A Simulation Analysis. Biosensors 2021, 11 (6) , 178.
    35. Beibei Zhu, Qichao Chen, Siyao Jiang, Milo Holt, Weinan Zhu, Deji Akinwande, Li Tao. Thermoelectric effect and devices on IVA and VA Xenes. InfoMat 2021, 3 (3) , 271-292.
    36. Christian Martella, Gabriele Faraone, Muhammad Hasibul Alam, Deepyanti Taneja, Li Tao, Guido Scavia, Emiliano Bonera, Carlo Grazianetti, Deji Akinwande, Alessandro Molle. Disassembling Silicene from Native Substrate and Transferring onto an Arbitrary Target Substrate. Advanced Functional Materials 2020, 30 (42)
    37. Hanliu Zhao, Xinghao Sun, Zhengrui Zhu, Wen Zhong, Dongdong Song, Weibing Lu, Li Tao. Physical vapor deposited 2D bismuth for CMOS technology. Journal of Semiconductors 2020, 41 (8) , 081001.
    38. Narguess Nemati, Oleksiy V. Penkov, Dae-Eun Kim. Superior surface protection governed by optimized interface characteristics in WC/DLC multilayer coating. Surface and Coatings Technology 2020, 385 , 125446.
    39. Carlo Grazianetti, Christian Martella, Alessandro Molle. The Xenes Generations: A Taxonomy of Epitaxial Single‐Element 2D Materials. physica status solidi (RRL) – Rapid Research Letters 2020, 14 (2)
    40. Eric Salomon, Daniel Beato-Medina, Paola De Padova, Thierry Angot, Guy Le Lay. Silicene. 2020, 1199-1215.
    41. Carlo Grazianetti, Christian Martella, Alessandro Molle. Two-dimensional Xenes and their device concepts for future micro- and nanoelectronics and energy applications. 2020, 181-219.
    42. Agnieszka Stpniak‐Dybala, Paweł Dyniec, Marek Kopciuszyski, Ryszard Zdyb, Mieczysław Jałochowski, Mariusz Krawiec. Planar Silicene: A New Silicon Allotrope Epitaxially Grown by Segregation. Advanced Functional Materials 2019, 29 (50)
    43. Xun Zhang, Jizhou Jiang, Abdulsalam Aji Suleiman, Bao Jin, Xiaozong Hu, Xing Zhou, Tianyou Zhai. Hydrogen‐Assisted Growth of Ultrathin Te Flakes with Giant Gate‐Dependent Photoresponse. Advanced Functional Materials 2019, 29 (49)
    44. Sandeep Kumar, Shiv Prasad, Krishna Kumar Yadav, Manoj Shrivastava, Neha Gupta, Shivani Nagar, Quang-Vu Bach, Hesam Kamyab, Shakeel A. Khan, Sunita Yadav, Lal Chand Malav. Hazardous heavy metals contamination of vegetables and food chain: Role of sustainable remediation approaches - A review. Environmental Research 2019, 179 , 108792.
    45. Miriam Galbiati, Nunzio Motta, Maurizio De Crescenzi, Luca Camilli. Group-IV 2D materials beyond graphene on nonmetal substrates: Challenges, recent progress, and future perspectives. Applied Physics Reviews 2019, 6 (4)
    46. Carlo Grazianetti, Gabriele Faraone, Christian Martella, Emiliano Bonera, Alessandro Molle. Embedding epitaxial (blue) phosphorene in between device-compatible functional layers. Nanoscale 2019, 11 (39) , 18232-18237.
    47. Paola De Padova, Amanda Generosi, Barbara Paci, Carlo Ottaviani, Claudio Quaresima, Bruno Olivieri, Marek Kopciuszyński, Lucyna Żurawek, Ryszard Zdyb, Mariusz Krawiec. New Findings on Multilayer Silicene on Si(111)√3×√3R30°–Ag Template. Materials 2019, 12 (14) , 2258.
    48. Si Zhou, Wei Pei, Jijun Zhao, Aijun Du. Silicene catalysts for CO 2 hydrogenation: the number of layers controls selectivity. Nanoscale 2019, 11 (16) , 7734-7743.
    49. Alina Lyuleeva, Tobias Helbich, Marco Bobinger, Bernhard Rieger, Markus Becherer, Paolo Lugli, Almudena Rivadeneyra. Functionalized and oxidized silicon nanosheets: Customized design for enhanced sensitivity towards relative humidity. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 2019, 283 , 451-457.
    50. Keisuke Yabuoshi, Yoshiaki Sugimoto. Evidence for honeycomb-chained trimer structure of multilayer silicene on Ag(111) with noncontact atomic force microscopy. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 2019, 58 (2) , 020903.
    51. Carlo Grazianetti, Alessandro Molle. Engineering Epitaxial Silicene on Functional Substrates for Nanotechnology. Research 2019, 2019
    52. Geng Li, Lizhi Zhang, Wenyan Xu, Jinbo Pan, Shiru Song, Yi Zhang, Haitao Zhou, Yeliang Wang, Lihong Bao, Yu‐Yang Zhang, Shixuan Du, Min Ouyang, Sokrates T. Pantelides, Hong‐Jun Gao. Stable Silicene in Graphene/Silicene Van der Waals Heterostructures. Advanced Materials 2018, 30 (49)
    53. Jian Lv, Meiling Xu, Shiru Lin, Xuecheng Shao, Xinyu Zhang, Yanhui Liu, Yanchao Wang, Zhongfang Chen, Yanming Ma. Direct-gap semiconducting tri-layer silicene with 29% photovoltaic efficiency. Nano Energy 2018, 51 , 489-495.
    54. Hung-Chang Hsu, Yi-Hung Lu, Tai-Lung Su, Wen-Chin Lin, Tsu-Yi Fu. Single crystalline silicene consist of various superstructures using a flexible ultrathin Ag(111) template on Si(111). Semiconductor Science and Technology 2018, 33 (7) , 075004.
    55. Mariusz Krawiec. Functionalization of group-14 two-dimensional materials. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 2018, 30 (23) , 233003.
    56. A. Curcella, R. Bernard, Y. Borensztein, M. Lazzeri, G. Prévot. The mechanism for the stabilization and surfactant properties of epitaxial silicene. Nanoscale 2018, 10 (5) , 2291-2300.
    57. Alessandro Molle, Carlo Grazianetti, Li Tao, Deepyanti Taneja, Md. Hasibul Alam, Deji Akinwande. Silicene, silicene derivatives, and their device applications. Chemical Society Reviews 2018, 47 (16) , 6370-6387.
    58. Ke Yang, Wei-Qing Huang, Wangyu Hu, Gui-Fang Huang, Shuangchun Wen. Substrate-induced magnetism and topological phase transition in silicene. Nanoscale 2018, 10 (30) , 14667-14677.
    59. Alina Lyuleeva, Philipp Holzmüller, Tobias Helbich, Martin Stutzmann, Martin S. Brandt, Markus Becherer, Paolo Lugli, Bernhard Rieger. Charge transfer doping in functionalized silicon nanosheets/P3HT hybrid material for applications in electrolyte-gated field-effect transistors. Journal of Materials Chemistry C 2018, 6 (27) , 7343-7352.
    60. Alberto Curcella, Romain Bernard, Yves Borensztein, Silvia Pandolfi, Geoffroy Prévot. Transition from silicene monolayer to thin Si films on Ag(111): comparison between experimental data and Monte Carlo simulation. Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology 2018, 9 , 48-56.

    Pair your accounts.

    Export articles to Mendeley

    Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

    Pair your accounts.

    Export articles to Mendeley

    Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

    You’ve supercharged your research process with ACS and Mendeley!

    STEP 1:
    Click to create an ACS ID

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    Your Mendeley pairing has expired. Please reconnect