ACS Publications. Most Trusted. Most Cited. Most Read
My Activity

Figure 1Loading Img

Water Hardness as a Photochemical Parameter:  Tetracycline Photolysis as a Function of Calcium Concentration, Magnesium Concentration, and pH

View Author Information
Water Resources Science Program, University of Minnesota, 1985 Buford Avenue, St. Paul, Minnesota 55108, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Minnesota, 500 Pillsbury Drive SE, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455-0116, and Department of Chemistry, University of Minnesota, 207 Pleasant St. SE, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455
Cite this: Environ. Sci. Technol. 2006, 40, 23, 7236–7241
Publication Date (Web):June 23, 2006
Copyright © 2006 American Chemical Society

    Article Views





    Read OnlinePDF (163 KB)
    Supporting Info (2)»


    The environmental photochemical kinetics of the antibiotic compound tetracycline were investigated. The aqueous speciation of tetracycline over a range of natural pH and water hardness values is dominated by association with Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions. The association constants necessary to calculate tetracycline aqueous speciation given knowledge of pH, [Ca2+], and [Mg2+] were measured by spectrophotometric titrations and matrix deconvolution of a series of UV−vis absorption spectra into individual component species. A series of photolysis experiments was performed under simulated sunlight, and quantum yields for the solar photolysis of each environmentally relevant species were calculated. The results indicate that the pseudo-first-order rate constant for tetracycline photolysis at varied Mg2+ and Ca2+ concentrations relevant to natural conditions can vary by up to an order of magnitude. A self-sensitization effect was observed and was accounted for by varying the initial tetracycline concentration under each set of photolysis conditions.

     This article is part of the Emerging Contaminants Special Issue.

     Water Resources Science Program.


     Corresponding author phone:  (612)625-8582; e-mail: [email protected] (W.A.A.) or phone (612)625-0781; e-mail: [email protected] (K.M.).


     Department of Civil Engineering.

     Department of Chemistry.

    Supporting Information Available

    Jump To

    Materials used; experimental description and data fitting procedures for speciation studies; photolysis experimental procedure; spectral predictions under independent test conditions compared to observed data; activity correction calculations; sample kinetic time series, some of which show the false appearance of pseudo-first-order kinetics; Mg2+/TTC phase diagram analogous to Figure 5; a spreadsheet of the tabulated component absorption spectra, a calculation of TTC aqueous speciation, and average light absorption spectrum given input values of pH, [Ca2+], [Mg2+], and I, and, if a solar spectrum is entered, the average quantum yield for total TTC photolysis under that spectrum. This material is available free of charge via the Internet at

    Terms & Conditions

    Most electronic Supporting Information files are available without a subscription to ACS Web Editions. Such files may be downloaded by article for research use (if there is a public use license linked to the relevant article, that license may permit other uses). Permission may be obtained from ACS for other uses through requests via the RightsLink permission system:

    Cited By

    This article is cited by 136 publications.

    1. Zhao Ma, Juan Liu, Hui Li, Wei Zhang, Mark A. Williams, Yanzheng Gao, Fredrick Owino Gudda, Chao Lu, Bing Yang, Michael Gatheru Waigi. A Fast and Easily Parallelizable Biosensor Method for Measuring Extractable Tetracyclines in Soils. Environmental Science & Technology 2020, 54 (2) , 758-767.
    2. Liangpang Xu, Hui Li, William A. Mitch, Shu Tao, Dongqiang Zhu. Enhanced Phototransformation of Tetracycline at Smectite Clay Surfaces under Simulated Sunlight via a Lewis-Base Catalyzed Alkalization Mechanism. Environmental Science & Technology 2019, 53 (2) , 710-718.
    3. Hui Wang, Hong Yao, Peizhe Sun, Desheng Li, and Ching-Hua Huang . Transformation of Tetracycline Antibiotics and Fe(II) and Fe(III) Species Induced by Their Complexation. Environmental Science & Technology 2016, 50 (1) , 145-153.
    4. Peizhe Sun, Spyros G. Pavlostathis, and Ching-Hua Huang . Photodegradation of Veterinary Ionophore Antibiotics under UV and Solar Irradiation. Environmental Science & Technology 2014, 48 (22) , 13188-13196.
    5. Yingjie Zhang, Stephen A. Boyd, Brian J. Teppen, James M. Tiedje, and Hui Li . Role of Tetracycline Speciation in the Bioavailability to Escherichia coli for Uptake and Expression of Antibiotic Resistance. Environmental Science & Technology 2014, 48 (9) , 4893-4900.
    6. Xiaoxuan Wei, Jingwen Chen, Qing Xie, Siyu Zhang, Linke Ge, and Xianliang Qiao . Distinct Photolytic Mechanisms and Products for Different Dissociation Species of Ciprofloxacin. Environmental Science & Technology 2013, 47 (9) , 4284-4290.
    7. Siyu Zhang, Jingwen Chen, Xianliang Qiao, Linke Ge, Xiyun Cai, and Guangshui Na. Quantum Chemical Investigation and Experimental Verification on the Aquatic Photochemistry of the Sunscreen 2-Phenylbenzimidazole-5-Sulfonic Acid. Environmental Science & Technology 2010, 44 (19) , 7484-7490.
    8. Linke Ge, Jingwen Chen, Xiaoxuan Wei, Siyu Zhang, Xianliang Qiao, Xiyun Cai and Qing Xie. Aquatic Photochemistry of Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics: Kinetics, Pathways, and Multivariate Effects of Main Water Constituents. Environmental Science & Technology 2010, 44 (7) , 2400-2405.
    9. Jeffrey J. Werner, Kristopher McNeill and William A. Arnold . Photolysis of Chlortetracycline on a Clay Surface. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2009, 57 (15) , 6932-6937.
    10. Linke Ge, Jingwen Chen, Xianliang Qiao, Jing Lin and Xiyun Cai. Light-Source-Dependent Effects of Main Water Constituents on Photodegradation of Phenicol Antibiotics: Mechanism and Kinetics. Environmental Science & Technology 2009, 43 (9) , 3101-3107.
    11. Wan-Ru Chen and Ching-Hua Huang. Transformation of Tetracyclines Mediated by Mn(II) and Cu(II) Ions in the Presence of Oxygen. Environmental Science & Technology 2009, 43 (2) , 401-407.
    12. Irene Bueno, Huan He, Amy C. Kinsley, Sarah J. Ziemann, Lauren R. Degn, André J. Nault, Amanda L. Beaudoin, Randall S. Singer, Kristine H. Wammer, William A. Arnold. Biodegradation, photolysis, and sorption of antibiotics in aquatic environments: A scoping review. Science of The Total Environment 2023, 897 , 165301.
    13. Zhiquan Chen, Didi Yang, Zhenda Liang, Yongtao Xu, Yijun Pang, Gang Xu, Chaoxiang Chen, Kunyu Ma, Li Zhou, Bing Yan. Leveraging oxygen-vacancy-rich Yb-MnO2/N-carbon quantum dots heterostructure for solar light-driven tetracycline detoxification and antibiotic-resistant bacteria inactivation. Chemical Engineering Journal 2023, 474 , 145978.
    14. Ying Lu, Se Wang, Yifan Shen, Ce Hao. Photodegradation fate of different dissociation species of antidepressant paroxetine and the effects of metal ion Mg2+: Theoretical basis for direct and indirect photolysis. Chemosphere 2023, 335 , 139070.
    15. Xin Cheng, Jingquan Wang, Bo Yang, Chengjin Wang, Wenhai Chu, Hongguang Guo. Reevaluation for UV photolysis of Fe(III) inducing tetracycline abatement: Overlooked significance of complexation-assistance in environmental fates of antibiotics. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2023, 458 , 131909.
    16. Jinhong Fan, Jia Liu, Ying Cai, Zhigang Liu, Deli Wu. Efficient degradation of tetracycline in FeS-based SR-AOPs process at basic pHs: The overlooked role of metal complexation and redox reaction in persulfate activation. Chemical Engineering Journal 2023, 466 , 143168.
    17. Yakun Wang, Ziwei Song, Liwen Zhang, Deming Dong, Zhuojuan Li, Heyang Sun, Liting Wang, Zhiyong Guo. Distribution and photodegradation of typical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in an ice-water system: Simulation of surface waters with an ice cover. Journal of Cleaner Production 2023, 402 , 136823.
    18. Rui Zhang, Jie He, Lu Cai. Self-assembly of nanoflower-like MIL-125(Ti)/Bi2O2CO3 hierarchical tandem heterojunctions for enhanced visible-light degradation of antibiotic contamination. Inorganic Chemistry Communications 2023, 150 , 110504.
    19. Xiuwei Ao, Xi Zhang, Shiyu Li, Yiting Yang, Wenjun Sun, Zifu Li. Comprehensive understanding of fluoroquinolone degradation via MPUV/PAA process: Radical chemistry, matrix effects, degradation pathways, and toxicity. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2023, 445 , 130480.
    20. Zhongyu Guo, Dilini Kodikara, Luthfia Shofi Albi, Yuta Hatano, Guo Chen, Chihiro Yoshimura, Jieqiong Wang. Photodegradation of organic micropollutants in aquatic environment: Importance, factors and processes. Water Research 2023, 231 , 118236.
    21. Chengxin Guo, Lingling Wang, Daning Lang, Qianqian Qian, Wei Wang, Ronglan Wu, Jide Wang. UV and chemical aging alter the adsorption behavior of microplastics for tetracycline. Environmental Pollution 2023, 318 , 120859.
    22. Shenxu Bao, Chunfu Xin, Yimin Zhang, Bo Chen, Wei Ding, Yongpeng Luo. Application of Capacitive Deionization in Water Treatment and Energy Recovery: A Review. Energies 2023, 16 (3) , 1136.
    23. Lianghe Gao, Jianhong Yang, Jun Cai, Fengqin Shen, Jianbin Gu. Visible Light Driven Degradation of Tetracycline Hydrochloride in the Presence of Ruthenium Photosensitizer. Environmental Engineering Science 2023, 40 (1) , 29-37.
    24. Linke Ge, Yan Yang, Shengkai Cao, Dongxiao Bai, Xiaoxuan Wei, Peng Zhang, Hongrui Ma. Aqueous environmental photochemical behavior of different antibiotic dissociation forms. SCIENTIA SINICA Chimica 2022, 52 (12) , 2183-2200.
    25. Abdullah Al Tamim, Saeed Alzahrani, Sarah Al-Subaie, Mohammed A. Almutairi, Ahmed Al Jaber, Abdullah M. Alowaifeer. Fast simultaneous determination of 23 veterinary drug residues in fish, poultry, and red meat by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Arabian Journal of Chemistry 2022, 15 (10) , 104116.
    26. Yifan Shen, Shuwen Wang, Se Wang, Ce Hao. Elucidating photolysis mechanisms of ketamine by quantum chemical calculations. Computational and Theoretical Chemistry 2022, 1216 , 113845.
    27. Anqi Wang, Jun Hou, Yanfang Feng, Jun Wu, Lingzhan Miao. Removal of tetracycline by biochar-supported biogenetic sulfidated zero valent iron: Kinetics, pathways and mechanism. Water Research 2022, 225 , 119168.
    28. Anping Peng, Chao Wang, Zhanhua Zhang, Xin Jin, Cheng Gu, Zeyou Chen. Tetracycline photolysis revisited: Overlooked day-night succession of the parent compound and metabolites in natural surface waters and associated ecotoxicity. Water Research 2022, 225 , 119197.
    29. Vladimir Abramov, Anna Abramova, Vadim Bayazitov, Svetlana Kameneva, Varvara Veselova, Daniil Kozlov, Madina Sozarukova, Alexander Baranchikov, Igor Fedulov, Roman Nikonov, Giancarlo Cravotto. Fast Degradation of Tetracycline and Ciprofloxacin in Municipal Water under Hydrodynamic Cavitation/Plasma with CeO2 Nanocatalyst. Processes 2022, 10 (10) , 2063.
    30. Ming-Chi Hsieh, Yi-Hsuan Su, Ming-Hao Hsu, Angela Yu-Chen Lin. Enhanced MnO2 oxidation of methotrexate through self-sensitized photolysis. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2022, 438 , 129494.
    31. Yitao Li, Yuhe He, Chun Ho Lam, Theodora Nah. Environmental photochemistry of organic UV filter butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane: Implications for photochemical fate in surface waters. Science of The Total Environment 2022, 839 , 156145.
    32. Shoubin Huang, Yuliang Wu, Qianxin Zhang, Xiaoyu Jin, Daguang Li, Haijin Liu, Ping Chen, Wenying Lv, Guoguang Liu. Bi 2 O 2 CO 3 /Bi 2 O 3 Z-scheme photocatalyst with oxygen vacancies and Bi for enhanced visible-light photocatalytic degradation of tetracycline. Environmental Science: Nano 2022, 9 (6) , 2104-2120.
    33. Yitao Lyu, Taobo Huang, Wen Liu, Weiling Sun. Unveil the quantum chemical descriptors determining direct photodegradation of antibiotics under simulated sunlight: Batch experiments and model development. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 2022, 10 (3) , 108086.
    34. Jean Pierre Bavumiragira, Jia'ning Ge, Hailong Yin. Fate and transport of pharmaceuticals in water systems: A processes review. Science of The Total Environment 2022, 823 , 153635.
    35. Zhuozhi Ouyang, Fadan Lei, Endian Hu, Shuxing Li, Qian Yao, Xuetao Guo. New insight into transformation of tetracycline in presence of Mn(II): Oxidation versus photolysis. Environmental Pollution 2022, 300 , 118998.
    36. Xiang Li, Chunping Yang, Yan Lin, Tianjue Hu, Guangming Zeng. Effects of oxytetracycline and zinc ion on nutrient removal and biomass production via microalgal culturing in anaerobic digester effluent. Bioresource Technology 2022, 346 , 126667.
    37. Qinxue Yang, Ying Yan, Xiaofang Yang, Guiying Liao, Jie He, Dongsheng Wang. The effect of complexation with metal ions on tetracycline degradation by Fe2+/3+ and Ru3+ activated peroxymonosulfate. Chemical Engineering Journal 2022, 429 , 132178.
    38. Maria M. Uzelac, Sanja J. Armaković, Stevan Armaković, Dragana D. Četojević-Simin, Jasmina Agbaba, Nemanja D. Banić. The role of environmental waters ionic composition and UV–LED radiation on photodegradation, mineralization and toxicity of commonly used β-blockers. Journal of Molecular Structure 2022, 1249 , 131579.
    39. Yuanquan Xiang, Xian Lu, Yali Liu, Changye Yu, Huiting Yang, Naiyun Gao, Wenhai Chu, Yinjiang Zhang. Influence of chemical speciation on enrofloxacin degradation by UV irradiation: Kinetics, mechanism and disinfection by-products formation. Chemosphere 2022, 286 , 131559.
    40. Marisa Haenni, Christophe Dagot, Olivier Chesneau, Delphine Bibbal, Jérôme Labanowski, Michèle Vialette, Damien Bouchard, Fabrice Martin-Laurent, Louisiane Calsat, Sylvie Nazaret, Fabienne Petit, Anne-Marie Pourcher, Anne Togola, Morgane Bachelot, Edward Topp, Didier Hocquet. Environmental contamination in a high-income country (France) by antibiotics, antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and antibiotic resistance genes: Status and possible causes. Environment International 2022, 159 , 107047.
    41. Xiaotong Wang, Yufei Lin, Yang Zheng, Fanping Meng. Antibiotics in mariculture systems: A review of occurrence, environmental behavior, and ecological effects. Environmental Pollution 2022, 293 , 118541.
    42. Ying Cai, Shihao Shen, Jinhong Fan. Enhanced degradation of tetracycline by Cu(II) complexation in the FeS/sulfite system. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2022, 421 , 126673.
    43. Kunni Lin, Deping Hu, Jiawei Peng, Chao Xu, Feng Long Gu, Zhenggang Lan. Prediction of the excited-state reaction channels in photo-induced processes of nitrofurantoin using first-principle calculations and dynamics simulations. Chemosphere 2021, 281 , 130831.
    44. Na Sun, Hongjian Zhou, Haimin Zhang, Yunxia Zhang, Huijun Zhao, Guozhong Wang. Synchronous removal of tetracycline and water hardness ions by capacitive deionization. Journal of Cleaner Production 2021, 316 , 128251.
    45. Bo Yang, Chengjin Wang, Xin Cheng, Yongli Zhang, Wei Li, Jingquan Wang, Zixin Tian, Wenhai Chu, Gregory V Korshin, Hongguang Guo. Interactions between the antibiotic tetracycline and humic acid: Examination of the binding sites, and effects of complexation on the oxidation of tetracycline. Water Research 2021, 202 , 117379.
    46. Pavla Kovalakova, Leslie Cizmas, Mingbao Feng, Thomas J. McDonald, Blahoslav Marsalek, Virender K. Sharma. Oxidation of antibiotics by ferrate(VI) in water: Evaluation of their removal efficiency and toxicity changes. Chemosphere 2021, 277 , 130365.
    47. Yujie He, Li Zhang, Longxue Jiang, Thomas Wagner, Nora B. Sutton, Rong Ji, Alette A.M. Langenhoff. Improving removal of antibiotics in constructed wetland treatment systems based on key design and operational parameters: A review. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2021, 407 , 124386.
    48. Manuel Conde-Cid, Avelino Núñez-Delgado, María Fernández-Sanjurjo, Esperanza Álvarez-Rodríguez, David Fernández-Calviño, Manuel Arias-Estévez. Tetracycline and Sulfonamide Antibiotics in Soils: Presence, Fate and Environmental Risks. Processes 2020, 8 (11) , 1479.
    49. Sangki Choi, Woohyung Sim, Dong Jang, Younggun Yoon, Jungmoon Ryu, Jeongbum Oh, Jeong-Seok Woo, Young Mo Kim, Yunho Lee. Antibiotics in coastal aquaculture waters: Occurrence and elimination efficiency in oxidative water treatment processes. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2020, 396 , 122585.
    50. Si Li, Yiyan He, Fanguang Kong, Weiling Sun, Jiangyong Hu. Photolytic Degradation of Tetracycline in the Presence of Ca(II) and/or Humic Acid. Water 2020, 12 (8) , 2078.
    51. Pavla Kovalakova, Leslie Cizmas, Thomas J. McDonald, Blahoslav Marsalek, Mingbao Feng, Virender K. Sharma. Occurrence and toxicity of antibiotics in the aquatic environment: A review. Chemosphere 2020, 251 , 126351.
    52. Chao Song, Hua-Yu Liu, Shuang Guo, Shu-Guang Wang. Photolysis mechanisms of tetracycline under UV irradiation in simulated aquatic environment surrounding limestone. Chemosphere 2020, 244 , 125582.
    53. Se Wang, Shuwen Wang, Shaheen Shah, Longyan Li, Hao Fang, Ce Hao. A density functional theory/time-dependent density functional theory study of the structure-related photochemical properties of hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers and metal ion effects. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 2020, 27 (9) , 9297-9306.
    54. Xiaohong Dong, Dawei Rao, Lejin Tian, Qizheng Wang, Kun Yang. A slurry microcosm study on the interaction between antibiotics and soil bacterial community. Heliyon 2020, 6 (2) , e03348.
    55. Jolanta Turek-Szytow, D. Marciocha, J. Kalka, J. Surmacz-Górska. Peroxide impact on the fate of veterinary drugs in fertilizers. Chemical Papers 2020, 74 (1) , 311-322.
    56. Zhuozhi Ouyang, Chen Yang, Guining Lu, Qian Yao, Junheng He, Hanming Wang, Zhengfang Zhang, Jingjing Yang, Yanjun Liu, Yu Jiang, Yurong Deng, Zhi Dang. Chromate(VI)-induced homogeneous oxidation and photolysis of aqueous tetracycline: Kinetics and mechanism. Chemical Engineering Journal 2020, 379 , 122276.
    57. Yang Zhou, Yuan Gao, Jin Jiang, Yong-Ming Shen, Su-Yan Pang, Zhen Wang, Jiebin Duan, Qin Guo, Chaoting Guan, Jun Ma. Transformation of tetracycline antibiotics during water treatment with unactivated peroxymonosulfate. Chemical Engineering Journal 2020, 379 , 122378.
    58. Julieta M. Decundo, Susana N. Diéguez, Guadalupe Martínez, Agustina Romanelli, María B. Fernández Paggi, Denisa S. Pérez Gaudio, Fabián A. Amanto, Alejandro L. Soraci. Impact of water hardness on oxytetracycline oral bioavailability in fed and fasted piglets. Veterinary Medicine and Science 2019, 5 (4) , 517-525.
    59. Cai-jie Wei, Xiao-yan Li, Yue-feng Xie, Xiao-mao Wang. Direct photo transformation of tetracycline and sulfanomide group antibiotics in surface water: Kinetics, toxicity and site modeling. Science of The Total Environment 2019, 686 , 1-9.
    60. Hang Liu, Xin Huang, Xiaolu Yu, Chengjun Pu, Ying Sun, Wenhai Luo. Dissipation and persistence of sulfonamides, quinolones and tetracyclines in anaerobically digested biosolids and compost during short-term storage under natural conditions. Science of The Total Environment 2019, 684 , 58-66.
    61. Ming-Hao Hsu, Chia-Jung Tsai, Angela Yu-Chen Lin. Mechanism and pathways underlying the self-sensitized photodegradation of methotrexate under simulated solar irradiation. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2019, 373 , 468-475.
    62. Tian-Cong Jia, Jin-Tao Guo, Zhen Wang, Xiao-Shan Zhu, Qian-Xin Zhang, Ping Chen, Kun Yao, Wen-Ying Lv, Guo-Guang Liu. Photodegradation mechanisms of acyclovir in water and the toxicity of photoproducts. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry 2019, 320 (3) , 823-830.
    63. Changlu Wu, Chiquan He. Interaction effects of oxytetracycline and copper at different ratios on marine microalgae Isochrysis galbana. Chemosphere 2019, 225 , 775-784.
    64. Joana F. Leal, Valdemar I. Esteves, Eduarda B.H. Santos. Solar photodegradation of oxytetracycline in brackish aquaculture water: New insights about effects of Ca2+ and Mg2+. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry 2019, 372 , 218-225.
    65. Linke Ge, Peng Zhang, Crispin Halsall, Yanying Li, Chang-Er Chen, Jun Li, Helin Sun, Ziwei Yao. The importance of reactive oxygen species on the aqueous phototransformation of sulfonamide antibiotics: kinetics, pathways, and comparisons with direct photolysis. Water Research 2019, 149 , 243-250.
    66. Ya-nan Zhang, Jianchen Zhao, Yangjian Zhou, Jiao Qu, Jingwen Chen, Chao Li, Weichao Qin, Yahui Zhao, Willie J. G. M. Peijnenburg. Combined effects of dissolved organic matter, pH, ionic strength and halides on photodegradation of oxytetracycline in simulated estuarine waters. Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts 2019, 21 (1) , 155-162.
    67. Yi Yang, Shuo Yin, Danni Yang, Yang Jiang, Yongxin Li, Chen Zhou, Chengjun Sun. Carboxyl Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticle-based SPE and HPLC method for the determination of six tetracyclines in water. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 2019, 411 (2) , 507-515.
    68. Zhichao Zhang, Xiande Xie, Zhiqiang Yu, Hefa Cheng. Influence of chemical speciation on photochemical transformation of three fluoroquinolones (FQs) in water: Kinetics, mechanism, and toxicity of photolysis products. Water Research 2019, 148 , 19-29.
    69. Se Wang, Zhuang Wang, Ce Hao, Willie J. G. M. Peijnenburg. DFT/TDDFT insights into effects of dissociation and metal complexation on photochemical behavior of enrofloxacin in water. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 2018, 25 (30) , 30609-30616.
    70. Ya-nan Zhang, Yangjian Zhou, Jiao Qu, Jingwen Chen, Jianchen Zhao, Ying Lu, Chao Li, Qing Xie, Willie J.G.M. Peijnenburg. Unveiling the important roles of coexisting contaminants on photochemical transformations of pharmaceuticals: Fibrate drugs as a case study. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2018, 358 , 216-221.
    71. M. Conde-Cid, D. Fernández-Calviño, J.C. Nóvoa-Muñoz, M. Arias-Estévez, M. Díaz-Raviña, M.J. Fernández-Sanjurjo, A. Núñez-Delgado, E. Álvarez-Rodríguez. Biotic and abiotic dissipation of tetracyclines using simulated sunlight and in the dark. Science of The Total Environment 2018, 635 , 1520-1529.
    72. Qianjiahua Liao, Zheng Huang, Shu Li, Yi Wang, Yuqing Liu, Ran Luo, Jingge Shang. Effects of wind–wave disturbances on adsorption and desorption of tetracycline and sulfadimidine in water–sediment systems. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 2018, 25 (23) , 22561-22570.
    73. Linke Ge, Qianqian Dong, Crispin Halsall, Chang-Er L. Chen, Jun Li, Degao Wang, Peng Zhang, Ziwei Yao. Aqueous multivariate phototransformation kinetics of dissociated tetracycline: implications for the photochemical fate in surface waters. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 2018, 25 (16) , 15726-15732.
    74. Naoufal Rahmatallah, Hicham El Rhaffouli, Idriss Lahlou Amine, Yassine Sekhsokh, Ouafaa Fassi Fihri, Mohammed El Houadfi. Consumption of antibacterial molecules in broiler production in Morocco. Veterinary Medicine and Science 2018, 4 (2) , 80-90.
    75. Jill F. Kerrigan, Kyle D. Sandberg, Daniel R. Engstrom, Timothy M. LaPara, William A. Arnold. Sedimentary record of antibiotic accumulation in Minnesota Lakes. Science of The Total Environment 2018, 621 , 970-979.
    76. Marcelo L. Wilde, Jakob Menz, Christoph Leder, Klaus Kümmerer. Combination of experimental and in silico methods for the assessment of the phototransformation products of the antipsychotic drug/metabolite Mesoridazine. Science of The Total Environment 2018, 618 , 697-711.
    77. Xiande Xie, Zhichao Zhang, Yuanan Hu, Hefa Cheng. A mechanistic kinetic model for singlet oxygen mediated self-sensitized photo-oxidation of organic pollutants in water. Chemical Engineering Journal 2018, 334 , 1242-1251.
    78. Ting Wang, Qian-Yuan Wu, Wen-Long Wang, Zhuo Chen, Bing-Tian Li, Ang Li, Zi-Ye Liu, Hong-Ying Hu. Self-sensitized photodegradation of benzisothiazolinone by low-pressure UV-C irradiation: Kinetics, mechanisms, and the effect of media. Separation and Purification Technology 2017, 189 , 419-424.
    79. Se Wang, Zhuang Wang. Elucidating Direct Photolysis Mechanisms of Different Dissociation Species of Norfloxacin in Water and Mg2+ Effects by Quantum Chemical Calculations. Molecules 2017, 22 (11) , 1949.
    80. N. Zhang, J. M. Li, G. G. Liu, X. L. Chen, K. Jiang. Photodegradation of diclofenac in aqueous solution by simulated sunlight irradiation: kinetics, thermodynamics and pathways. Water Science and Technology 2017, 75 (9) , 2163-2170.
    81. Xiaoning Wang, Jinping Jia, Yalin Wang. Combination of photocatalysis with hydrodynamic cavitation for degradation of tetracycline. Chemical Engineering Journal 2017, 315 , 274-282.
    82. Beatriz Sevilla-Morán, Luisa Calvo, Carmen López-Goti, José L. Alonso-Prados, Pilar Sandín-España. Photodegradation behaviour of sethoxydim and its comercial formulation Poast® under environmentally-relevant conditions in aqueous media. Study of photoproducts and their toxicity. Chemosphere 2017, 168 , 501-507.
    83. Rama Pulicharla, Krishnamoorthy Hegde, Satinder Kaur Brar, Rao Y. Surampalli. Tetracyclines metal complexation: Significance and fate of mutual existence in the environment. Environmental Pollution 2017, 221 , 1-14.
    84. Hong Yao, Jin Pei, Hui Wang, Jie Fu. Effect of Fe(II/III) on tetracycline degradation under UV/VUV irradiation. Chemical Engineering Journal 2017, 308 , 193-201.
    85. Xin Jin, Huaizhou Xu, Shanshan Qiu, Mingyun Jia, Fang Wang, Aiqian Zhang, Xin Jiang. Direct photolysis of oxytetracycline: Influence of initial concentration, pH and temperature. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry 2017, 332 , 224-231.
    86. Shaheen Shah, Ce Hao. Density functional theory study of direct and indirect photodegradation mechanisms of sulfameter. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 2016, 23 (19) , 19921-19930.
    87. Yuefei Ji, Yuanyuan Shi, Wei Dong, Xin Wen, Mengdi Jiang, Junhe Lu. Thermo-activated persulfate oxidation system for tetracycline antibiotics degradation in aqueous solution. Chemical Engineering Journal 2016, 298 , 225-233.
    88. Hongyu Wang, Yibing Liu, Jia-Qian Jiang. Reaction kinetics and oxidation product formation in the degradation of acetaminophen by ferrate (VI). Chemosphere 2016, 155 , 583-590.
    89. Xin Jin, Shanshan Qiu, Ke Wu, Mingyun Jia, Fang Wang, Chenggang Gu, Aiqian Zhang, Xin Jiang. The effect of Cu2+ chelation on the direct photolysis of oxytetracycline: A study assisted by spectroscopy analysis and DFT calculation. Environmental Pollution 2016, 214 , 831-839.
    90. J.F. Leal, V.I. Esteves, E.B.H. Santos. Use of sunlight to degrade oxytetracycline in marine aquaculture's waters. Environmental Pollution 2016, 213 , 932-939.
    91. Yuan Li, Qin Li, Kai Zhou, Xing-Li Sun, Li-Rong Zhao, Yu-Bin Zhang. Occurrence and distribution of the environmental pollutant antibiotics in Gaoqiao mangrove area, China. Chemosphere 2016, 147 , 25-35.
    92. Wenjing Deng, Na Li, Hailong Zheng, Huiying Lin. Occurrence and risk assessment of antibiotics in river water in Hong Kong. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 2016, 125 , 121-127.
    93. Ya-nan Zhang, Qing Xie, Jingwen Chen, Yingjie Li, Zhiqiang Fu. Insights into the photochemical transformation pathways of triclosan and 2′-HO-BDE-28. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2015, 300 , 354-358.
    94. Shaheen Shah, Heming Zhang, Xuedan Song, Ce Hao. Quantum chemical study of the photolysis mechanisms of sulfachloropyridazine and the influence of selected divalent metal ions. Chemosphere 2015, 138 , 765-769.
    95. Linke Ge, Guangshui Na, Siyu Zhang, Kai Li, Peng Zhang, Honglei Ren, Ziwei Yao. New insights into the aquatic photochemistry of fluoroquinolone antibiotics: Direct photodegradation, hydroxyl-radical oxidation, and antibacterial activity changes. Science of The Total Environment 2015, 527-528 , 12-17.
    96. Zhehua Xue, Ting Wang, Bingdi Chen, Tyler Malkoske, Shuili Yu, Yulin Tang. Degradation of Tetracycline with BiFeO3 Prepared by a Simple Hydrothermal Method. Materials 2015, 8 (9) , 6360-6378.
    97. Dao-Yong Chen, Xiao-Feng Guo, Hong Wang, Hua-Shan Zhang. The natural degradation of benzophenone at low concentration in aquatic environments. Water Science and Technology 2015, 72 (4) , 503-509.
    98. Se Wang, Xuedan Song, Ce Hao, Zhanxian Gao, Jingwen Chen, Jieshan Qiu. Elucidating triplet-sensitized photolysis mechanisms of sulfadiazine and metal ions effects by quantum chemical calculations. Chemosphere 2015, 122 , 62-69.
    99. Maryam Ghaemi, Ghodratollah Absalan. Fast removal and determination of doxycycline in water samples and honey by Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles. Journal of the Iranian Chemical Society 2015, 12 (1) , 1-7.
    100. Hui Wang, Hong Yao, Peizhe Sun, Jin Pei, Desheng Li, Ching-Hua Huang. Oxidation of tetracycline antibiotics induced by Fe(III) ions without light irradiation. Chemosphere 2015, 119 , 1255-1261.
    Load all citations

    Pair your accounts.

    Export articles to Mendeley

    Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

    Pair your accounts.

    Export articles to Mendeley

    Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

    You’ve supercharged your research process with ACS and Mendeley!

    STEP 1:
    Click to create an ACS ID

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    Your Mendeley pairing has expired. Please reconnect