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Characterization of Particulate Matter Emissions from a Current Technology Natural Gas Engine

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Mechanical and Aerospace Department, West Virginia University, Morgantown, 395 Evansdale Drive, P.O. Box 6106, West Virginia 26505, United States
California Air Resources Board, 1001 I Street, Sacramento, California 95812, United States
*E-mail: [email protected]. Fax: (304) 293 6689. Tel.: (304) 293 0805.
Cite this: Environ. Sci. Technol. 2014, 48, 14, 8235–8242
Publication Date (Web):June 24, 2014
Copyright © 2014 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract Image

    Experiments were conducted to characterize the particulate matter (PM)-size distribution, number concentration, and chemical composition emitted from transit buses powered by a USEPA 2010 compliant, stoichiometric heavy-duty natural gas engine equipped with a three-way catalyst (TWC). Results of the particle-size distribution showed a predominant nucleation mode centered close to 10 nm. PM mass in the size range of 6.04 to 25.5 nm correlated strongly with mass of lubrication-oil-derived elemental species detected in the gravimetric PM sample. Results from oil analysis indicated an elemental composition that was similar to that detected in the PM samples. The source of elemental species in the oil sample can be attributed to additives and engine wear. Chemical speciation of particulate matter (PM) showed that lubrication-oil-based additives and wear metals were a major fraction of the PM mass emitted from the buses. The results of the study indicate the possible existence of nanoparticles below 25 nm formed as a result of lubrication oil passage through the combustion chamber. Furthermore, the results of oxidative stress (OS) analysis on the PM samples indicated strong correlations with both the PM mass calculated in the nanoparticle-size bin and the mass of elemental species that can be linked to lubrication oil as the source.

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    Schematic of the CVS sampling system of the TEMS with additional unregulated emissions sampling streams; sampling media, sampling devices, and analysis methods used for unregulated exhaust species; elemental and metals emissions rate for the two test vehicle over the UDDS, 45 MPH cruise, and idle operation; results of lubrication oil analysis sampled from the two buses; and results of reactive oxygen species assay (ROS) in zymosan units per mass of PM. This material is available free of charge via the Internet at

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