ACS Publications. Most Trusted. Most Cited. Most Read
My Activity

Figure 1Loading Img

Pilot-Scale Pyrolysis of Scrap Tires in a Continuous Rotary Kiln Reactor

View Author Information
Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China, and Department of Energy Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China
Cite this: Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2004, 43, 17, 5133–5145
Publication Date (Web):June 29, 2004
Copyright © 2004 American Chemical Society

    Article Views





    Read OnlinePDF (219 KB)


    The pilot-scale pyrolysis of scrap tires in a continuous rotary kiln reactor was investigated at temperatures between 450 and 650 °C. As the reactor temperature increased, the char yield remained constant with a mean of 39.8 wt %. The oil yield reached a maximum value of 45.1 wt % at 500 °C. The pyrolytic derived oils can be used as liquid fuels because of their high heating value (40−42 MJ/kg), excellent viscosity (1.6−3.7 cS), and reasonable sulfur content (0.97−1.54 wt %). The true-boiling-point distillation test showed that there was a 39.2−42.3 wt % light naphtha fraction in the pyrolytic oil. The volatile aromatics were quantified in the naphtha fraction using gas chromatography−mass spectrometry. The maximum concentrations of benzene, toluene, xylene, styrene, and limonene in the oil were 2.09 wt %, 7.24 wt %, 2.13 wt %, and 5.44 wt %, respectively. The abundant presence of aromatic groups was also confirmed by functional group Fourier transform infrared analysis. The concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as fluorine, phenanthrene, and anthracene increased with increasing temperature. The pyrolytic char was composed of mesopores with a Brunauer−Emmett−Teller (BET) surface area of about 89.1 m2/g. The char after carbon dioxide activation had a high BET surface area of 306 m2/g at 51.3% burnoff. The relationship between the surface area and the carbon burnoff was almost linear. Both the original pyrolytic char and the activated char have good potential for use as adsorbents of relatively large molecular species.


     To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail:  [email protected].

     Tsinghua University.

     Zhejiang University.

    Cited By

    This article is cited by 192 publications.

    1. Md. Maksudur Rahman, Yun Yu, Hongwei Wu. Method for the Capture and Quantification of Isoprene and the Determination of Oil Yield during Waste Tire Pyrolysis. Energy & Fuels 2023, Article ASAP.
    2. Md. Maksudur Rahman, Yun Yu, Hongwei Wu. Valorisation of Waste Tyre via Pyrolysis: Advances and Perspectives. Energy & Fuels 2022, 36 (20) , 12429-12474.
    3. Cody Wainscott, Austin C. Edwards, Jason Street, Brian Mitchell, Islam Elsayed, El Barbary Hassan, Todd E. Mlsna. Co-Pyrolysis of Southern Pine and Micronized Rubber Powder with Nickel Oxide and Sodium Carbonate Catalysts. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 2021, 60 (32) , 11915-11926.
    4. Zhanlong Song, Yecheng Yan, Mengmei Xie, Xu Lv, Yaqing Yang, Li Liu, Xiqiang Zhao. Effect of Steel Wires on the Microwave Pyrolysis of Tire Powders. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 2018, 6 (10) , 13443-13453.
    5. Bidhya Kunwar, Sriraam R. Chandrasekaran, Bryan R. Moser, Jennifer Deluhery, Pyoungchung Kim, Nandakishore Rajagopalan, and Brajendra K. Sharma . Catalytic Thermal Cracking of Postconsumer Waste Plastics to Fuels. 2. Pilot-Scale Thermochemical Conversion. Energy & Fuels 2017, 31 (3) , 2705-2715.
    6. Shuo Cheng, Fumitake Takahashi, Ningbo Gao, Kunio Yoshikawa, and Aimin Li . Evaluation of Oil Sludge Ash as a Solid Heat Carrier in the Pyrolysis Process of Oil Sludge for Oil Production. Energy & Fuels 2016, 30 (7) , 5970-5979.
    7. Arunas Jonusas and Linas Miknius . Influence of the Process Conditions on Yield, Composition, and Properties of the Products Derived from the Thermolysis of Scrap Tire and Used Engine Oil Blends. Energy & Fuels 2015, 29 (11) , 6978-6987.
    8. Zhengzhao Ma, Ningbo Gao, Lei Zhang, and Aimin Li . Modeling and Simulation of Oil Sludge Pyrolysis in a Rotary Kiln with a Solid Heat Carrier: Considering the Particle Motion and Reaction Kinetics. Energy & Fuels 2014, 28 (9) , 6029-6037.
    9. Faisal Abnisa, W. M. A. Wan Daud, Arash Arami-Niya, Brahim Si Ali, and J. N. Sahu . Recovery of Liquid Fuel from the Aqueous Phase of Pyrolysis Oil Using Catalytic Conversion. Energy & Fuels 2014, 28 (5) , 3074-3085.
    10. Yunliang Zhao, Yimin Zhang, Shenxu Bao, Tiejun Chen, and Xiang Liu . Effect of Stone Coal Chemical Composition on Sintering Behavior during Roasting. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 2014, 53 (1) , 157-163.
    11. Antonio Molino, Alessandro Erto, Francesco Di Natale, Antonio Donatelli, Pierpaolo Iovane, and Dino Musmarra . Gasification of Granulated Scrap Tires for the Production of Syngas and a Low-Cost Adsorbent for Cd(II) Removal from Wastewaters. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 2013, 52 (34) , 12154-12160.
    12. Juan Daniel Martínez, Magín Lapuerta, Reyes García-Contreras, Ramón Murillo, and Tomás García . Fuel Properties of Tire Pyrolysis Liquid and Its Blends with Diesel Fuel. Energy & Fuels 2013, 27 (6) , 3296-3305.
    13. Gartzen Lopez, Martin Olazar, Roberto Aguado, Gorka Elordi, Maider Amutio, Maite Artetxe, and Javier Bilbao. Vacuum Pyrolysis of Waste Tires by Continuously Feeding into a Conical Spouted Bed Reactor. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 2010, 49 (19) , 8990-8997.
    14. Ibrahim F. Elbaba, Chunfei Wu and Paul T. Williams. Catalytic Pyrolysis-Gasification of Waste Tire and Tire Elastomers for Hydrogen Production. Energy & Fuels 2010, 24 (7) , 3928-3935.
    15. Gartzen Lopez, Martin Olazar, Maider Amutio, Roberto Aguado and Javier Bilbao. Influence of Tire Formulation on the Products of Continuous Pyrolysis in a Conical Spouted Bed Reactor. Energy & Fuels 2009, 23 (11) , 5423-5431.
    16. Miriam Arabiourrutia, Martin Olazar, Roberto Aguado, Gartzen López, Astrid Barona and Javier Bilbao. HZSM-5 and HY Zeolite Catalyst Performance in the Pyrolysis of Tires in a Conical Spouted Bed Reactor. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 2008, 47 (20) , 7600-7609.
    17. Martin Olazar, Roberto Aguado, Miriam Arabiourrutia, Gartzen Lopez, Astrid Barona and Javier Bilbao . Catalyst Effect on the Composition of Tire Pyrolysis Products. Energy & Fuels 2008, 22 (5) , 2909-2916.
    18. E. L. K. Mui, V. K. C. Lee, W. H. Cheung and G. McKay. Kinetic Modeling of Waste Tire Carbonization. Energy & Fuels 2008, 22 (3) , 1650-1657.
    19. Martín Olazar,, Roberto Aguado,, David Vélez,, Miriam Arabiourrutia, and, Javier Bilbao. Kinetics of Scrap Tire Pyrolysis in a Conical Spouted Bed Reactor. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 2005, 44 (11) , 3918-3924.
    20. Ruolin Li, Yang Ren, Chengyang Cao, Chao He, Hongyun Hu, Xian Li, Hong Yao. Effects of particle size on the pyrolysis of waste tires during molten salt thermal treatment. Fuel 2024, 357 , 130002.
    21. Jingwei Qi, Ming Hu, Pengcheng Xu, Fugang Zhu, Haoran Yuan, Yijie Wang, Yong Chen. Study on pyrolysis of waste tires and condensation characteristics of products in a pilot scale screw-propelled reactor. Fuel 2023, 353 , 129225.
    22. G. Jiang, J. Pan, K. Che, W. Deng, Y. Sun, Y. Wu, H. Yuan, J. Gu, Y. Gu, W. Zhang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen. Recent developments of waste tires derived multifunctional carbonaceous nanomaterials. Materials Today Sustainability 2023, 24 , 100576.
    23. Yan Cao, Ali Taghvaie Nakhjiri, Shahin Sarkar. Modelling and simulation of waste tire pyrolysis process for recovery of energy and production of valuable chemicals (BTEX). Scientific Reports 2023, 13 (1)
    24. N.H. Zerin, M.G. Rasul, M.I. Jahirul, A.S.M. Sayem. End-of-life tyre conversion to energy: A review on pyrolysis and activated carbon production processes and their challenges. Science of The Total Environment 2023, 905 , 166981.
    25. S. Sathish, R. Nirmala, Yong–Ho Ra, R. Navamathavan. Factors influencing the pyrolysis products of waste tyres and its practical applications: a mini topical review. Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management 2023, 25 (6) , 3117-3131.
    26. Gontzal Lezcano, Idoia Hita, Yerraya Attada, Anissa Bendjeriou-Sedjerari, Ali H. Jawad, Alberto Lozano-Ballesteros, Miao Sun, Noor Al-Mana, Mohammed AlAmer, Eman Z. Albaher, Pedro Castaño. Selective ring-opening of polycyclic to monocyclic aromatics: A data- and technology-oriented critical review. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 2023, 99 , 101110.
    27. Maxwell Katambwa Mwelwa, Samuel Ayodele Iwarere, Ntandoyenkosi Malusi Mkhize. Advances in understanding kinetic mechanisms underlying waste ground tyre rubber pyrolysis. Detritus 2023, (24) , 52-69.
    28. Rui Huang, Qiangqiang Ren, Jialin Zhang, Limo He, Sheng Su, Yi Wang, Long Jiang, Jun Xu, Song Hu, Jun Xiang. Adjusting effects of pyrolytic volatiles interaction in char to upgrade oil by swelling waste nylon-tire. Waste Management 2023, 169 , 374-381.
    29. Haibin Fang, Zhanfeng Hou, Lingdi Shan, Xiaohui Cai, Zhenxiang Xin. Influence of Pyrolytic Carbon Black Derived from Waste Tires at Varied Temperatures within an Industrial Continuous Rotating Moving Bed System. Polymers 2023, 15 (16) , 3460.
    30. Job Bosire Omwoyo, Richard Kyalo Kimilu, John Mmari Onyari. Catalytic pyrolysis and composition evaluation of tire pyrolysis oil. Chemical Engineering Communications 2023, 210 (7) , 1086-1096.
    31. Junzhi Wang, Xinjiang Dong, Zongliang Zuo, Siyi Luo. Catalytic Pyrolysis of Waste Bicycle Tires and Engine Oil to Produce Limonene. Energies 2023, 16 (11) , 4351.
    32. A.J. Bowles, Á. Nievas, G.D. Fowler. Consecutive recovery of recovered carbon black and limonene from waste tyres by thermal pyrolysis in a rotary kiln. Sustainable Chemistry and Pharmacy 2023, 32 , 100972.
    33. Morteza Bodaghabadi, Farhad Qaderi, Amir Hossein Sayyahzadeh. Development of a novel induction-heated reactor to enhance the performance of waste tires pyrolysis. Waste Management 2023, 162 , 27-35.
    34. Wenwen Han, Deshang Han, Hongbo Chen. Pyrolysis of Waste Tires: A Review. Polymers 2023, 15 (7) , 1604.
    35. Amit Kumar, Harveer Singh Pali, Manoj Kumar. A comprehensive review on the production of alternative fuel through medical plastic waste. Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments 2023, 55 , 102924.
    36. Jae Gyu Hwang, Byeong Kyu Lee, Myung Kyu Choi, Hoon Chae Park, Hang Seok Choi. Optimal production of waste tire pyrolysis oil and recovery of high value-added D-limonene in a conical spouted bed reactor. Energy 2023, 262 , 125519.
    37. Houqian Li, Horacio A. Aguirre-Villegas, Robert D. Allen, Xianglan Bai, Craig H. Benson, Gregg T. Beckham, Sabrina L. Bradshaw, Jessica L. Brown, Robert C. Brown, Victor S. Cecon, Julia B. Curley, Greg W. Curtzwiler, Son Dong, Soumika Gaddameedi, John E. García, Ive Hermans, Min Soo Kim, Jiaze Ma, Lesli O. Mark, Manos Mavrikakis, Olumide O. Olafasakin, Tim A. Osswald, Konstantinos G. Papanikolaou, Harish Radhakrishnan, Marco Antonio Sanchez Castillo, Kevin L. Sánchez-Rivera, Khairun N. Tumu, Reid C. Van Lehn, Keith L. Vorst, Mark M. Wright, Jiayang Wu, Victor M. Zavala, Panzheng Zhou, George W. Huber. Expanding plastics recycling technologies: chemical aspects, technology status and challenges. Green Chemistry 2022, 24 (23) , 8899-9002.
    38. Yuhan Pan, Pingan Huang, Zhiliang Xue, Xinwen Wang, Yonggang Zhou, Qunxing Huang. The effect of the secondary reactions on volatile composition during the pyrolysis treatment of scrap tires. Environmental Technology 2022, 43 (26) , 4054-4065.
    39. Chao Yang, Ruru Fu, Qingze Jiao, Jiaan Yu, Jie Liang, Huanhuan Zhu, Xiaoguang Jiao, Caihong Feng, Yaoyuan Zhang, Hansheng Li, Yun Zhao. Catalytic Cracking of Waste Tires using Nano‐ZSM‐5/MgAl‐LDO. Energy Technology 2022, 10 (11)
    40. Mehrdad Seifali Abbas-Abadi, Marvin Kusenberg, Hamed Mohamadzadeh Shirazi, Bahman Goshayeshi, Kevin M. Van Geem. Towards full recyclability of end-of-life tires: Challenges and opportunities. Journal of Cleaner Production 2022, 374 , 134036.
    41. Ningbo Gao, Fengchao Wang, Cui Quan, Laura Santamaria, Gartzen Lopez, Paul T. Williams. Tire pyrolysis char: Processes, properties, upgrading and applications. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 2022, 93 , 101022.
    42. Jiří Bojanovský, Vítězslav Máša, Igor Hudák, Pavel Skryja, Josef Hopjan. Rotary Kiln, a Unit on the Border of the Process and Energy Industry—Current State and Perspectives. Sustainability 2022, 14 (21) , 13903.
    43. Matteo Venturelli, Ermelinda Falletta, Carlo Pirola, Federico Ferrari, Massimo Milani, Luca Montorsi. Experimental evaluation of the pyrolysis of plastic residues and waste tires. Applied Energy 2022, 323 , 119583.
    44. Guangcan Su, Hwai Chyuan Ong, Mei Yee Cheah, Wei-Hsin Chen, Su Shiung Lam, Yuhan Huang. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis technology for bioenergy recovery: Mechanism, performance, and prospect. Fuel 2022, 326 , 124983.
    45. Alberto Sanchís, Alberto Veses, Juan Daniel Martínez, José Manuel López, Tomás García, Ramón Murillo. The role of temperature profile during the pyrolysis of end-of-life-tyres in an industrially relevant conditions auger plant. Journal of Environmental Management 2022, 317 , 115323.
    46. Abdullahi Haruna Birniwa, Habibun Nabi Muhammad Ekramul Mahmud, Shehu Sa’ad Abdullahi, Shehu Habibu, Ahmad Hussaini Jagaba, Mohamad Nasir Mohamad Ibrahim, Akil Ahmad, Mohammed B. Alshammari, Tabassum Parveen, Khalid Umar. Adsorption Behavior of Methylene Blue Cationic Dye in Aqueous Solution Using Polypyrrole-Polyethylenimine Nano-Adsorbent. Polymers 2022, 14 (16) , 3362.
    47. A.J. Bowles, G.D. Fowler. Assessing the impacts of feedstock and process control on pyrolysis outputs for tyre recycling. Resources, Conservation and Recycling 2022, 182 , 106277.
    48. Wenwen Han, Chaojie Jiang, Jingjing Wang, Hongbo Chen. Enhancement of heat transfer during rubber pyrolysis process. Journal of Cleaner Production 2022, 348 , 131363.
    49. Anita Sharma, Ruturaj J. Sawant, Abhishek Sharma, Jyeshtharaj B. Joshi, Rakesh Kumar Jain, Rajkumar Kasilingam. Valorisation of End-of-Life tyres for generating valuable resources under circular economy. Fuel 2022, 314 , 123138.
    50. Osman Güngör, Alperen Tozlu, Cihat Arslantürk. Assessment of waste‐to‐energy potential of ELT management: An actual case study for Erzincan. Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy 2022, 41 (2)
    51. Somi Doja, Lava Kumar Pillari, Lukas Bichler. Processing and activation of tire-derived char: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2022, 155 , 111860.
    52. María Teresa Martín, Juan Luis Aguirre, Juan Baena-González, Sergio González, Roberto Pérez-Aparicio, Leticia Saiz-Rodríguez. Influence of Specific Power on the Solid and Liquid Products Obtained in the Microwave-Assisted Pyrolysis of End-of-Life Tires. Energies 2022, 15 (6) , 2128.
    53. Sebastião M. R. Costa, David Fowler, Germano A. Carreira, Inês Portugal, Carlos M. Silva. Production and Upgrading of Recovered Carbon Black from the Pyrolysis of End-of-Life Tires. Materials 2022, 15 (6) , 2030.
    54. Michał Musiał, Agnieszka Pękala. Functioning of Heat Accumulating Composites of Carbon Recyclate and Phase Change Material. Materials 2022, 15 (6) , 2331.
    55. Kawthar Frikha, Lionel Limousy, Joan Pons Claret, Cyril Vaulot, Karin Florencio Pérez, Beatriz Corzo Garcia, Simona Bennici. Potential Valorization of Waste Tires as Activated Carbon-Based Adsorbent for Organic Contaminants Removal. Materials 2022, 15 (3) , 1099.
    56. Kiran R. G. Burra, Zhiwei Wang, Matteo Policella, Ashwani K. Gupta. Energy Recovery from Waste Tires Via Thermochemical Pathways. 2022, 477-521.
    57. S.M. Al-Salem. Slow pyrolysis of end of life tyres (ELTs) grades: Effect of temperature on pyro-oil yield and quality. Journal of Environmental Management 2022, 301 , 113863.
    58. Ilesanmi Daniyan, Khumbulani Mpofu, Lanre Daniyan, Ikenna Damian Uchegbu. A framework for the production of renewable energy from waste tyre pyrolysis. 2021, 1-6.
    59. Somayeh Farzad, Mohsen Mandegari, Johann F. Görgens. A novel approach for valorization of waste tires into chemical and fuel (limonene and diesel) through pyrolysis: Process development and techno economic analysis. Fuel Processing Technology 2021, 224 , 107006.
    60. Chiemeka Onyeka Okoye, Mingming Zhu, Isabelle Jones, Juan Zhang, Zhezi Zhang, Dongke Zhang. Preparation and characterization of carbon black (CB) using heavy residue fraction of spent tyre pyrolysis oil. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 2021, 9 (6) , 106561.
    61. Junqing Xu, Jiaxue Yu, Wenzhi He, Juwen Huang, Junshi Xu, Guangming Li. Wet compounding with pyrolytic carbon black from waste tyre for manufacture of new tyre – A mini review. Waste Management & Research: The Journal for a Sustainable Circular Economy 2021, 39 (12) , 1440-1450.
    62. Ismail Luhar, Salmabanu Luhar. Rubberized Geopolymer Composites: Value-Added Applications. Journal of Composites Science 2021, 5 (12) , 312.
    63. Ahmed Akbas, Nor Yuliana Yuhana. Recycling of Rubber Wastes as Fuel and Its Additives. Recycling 2021, 6 (4) , 78.
    64. Junqing Xu, Jiaxue Yu, Wenzhi He, Juwen Huang, Junshi Xu, Guangming Li. Replacing commercial carbon black by pyrolytic residue from waste tire for tire processing: Technically feasible and economically reasonable. Science of The Total Environment 2021, 793 , 148597.
    65. Juan Daniel Martínez, Felipe Campuzano, Andrés F. Agudelo, Natalia Cardona-Uribe, Cindy Natalia Arenas. Chemical recycling of end-of-life tires by intermediate pyrolysis using a twin-auger reactor: Validation in a laboratory environment. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 2021, 159 , 105298.
    66. Mohsin Raza, Abrar Inayat, Ashfaq Ahmed, Farrukh Jamil, Chaouki Ghenai, Salman R. Naqvi, Abdallah Shanableh, Muhammad Ayoub, Ammara Waris, Young-Kwon Park. Progress of the Pyrolyzer Reactors and Advanced Technologies for Biomass Pyrolysis Processing. Sustainability 2021, 13 (19) , 11061.
    67. Yulin Hu, Mai Attia, Emir Tsabet, Ahmad Mohaddespour, Muhammad Tajammal Munir, Sherif Farag. Valorization of waste tire by pyrolysis and hydrothermal liquefaction: a mini-review. Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management 2021, 23 (5) , 1737-1750.
    68. Zoran Čepić, Višnja Mihajlović, Slavko Đurić, Milan Milotić, Milena Stošić, Borivoj Stepanov, Milana Ilić Mićunović. Experimental Analysis of Temperature Influence on Waste Tire Pyrolysis. Energies 2021, 14 (17) , 5403.
    69. Marwa Ourak, Mylène Marin Gallego, Gaëtan Burnens, Jean François Largeau, Sana Kordoghli, Féthi Zagrouba, Mohand Tazerout. Experimental Study of Pyrolytic Oils from Used Tires: Impact of Secondary Reactions on Liquid Composition. Waste and Biomass Valorization 2021, 12 (8) , 4663-4678.
    70. Nan Zhou, Leilei Dai, Yuancai Lv, Hui Li, Wenyi Deng, Feiqiang Guo, Paul Chen, Hanwu Lei, Roger Ruan. Catalytic pyrolysis of plastic wastes in a continuous microwave assisted pyrolysis system for fuel production. Chemical Engineering Journal 2021, 418 , 129412.
    71. Krzysztof Kuśmierek, Andrzej Świątkowski, Tomasz Kotkowski, Robert Cherbański, Eugeniusz Molga. Adsorption on activated carbons from end-of-life tyre pyrolysis for environmental applications. Part I. preparation of adsorbent and adsorption from gas phase. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 2021, 157 , 105205.
    72. Guanyi Chen, Muhammad Zohaib Farooq, Bingyan Sun, Fawei Lin, BeiBei Yan, Gulzeb Rajput, Muhammad Chawla. Pollutants formation, distribution, and reaction mechanism during WT pyrolysis: A review. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 2021, 157 , 105218.
    73. Fabian Proch, Kai Bauerbach, Paschalis Grammenoudis. Development of an up-scalable rotary kiln design for the pyrolysis of waste tyres. Chemical Engineering Science 2021, 238 , 116573.
    74. Maciej Mikulski, Marta Ambrosewicz-Walacik, Jacek Hunicz, Szymon Nitkiewicz. Combustion engine applications of waste tyre pyrolytic oil. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 2021, 85 , 100915.
    75. M.M. Hasan, M.G. Rasul, M.M.K. Khan, N. Ashwath, M.I. Jahirul. Energy recovery from municipal solid waste using pyrolysis technology: A review on current status and developments. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2021, 145 , 111073.
    76. Mohammad I. Jahirul, Farhad M. Hossain, Mohammad G. Rasul, Ashfaque Ahmed Chowdhury. A Review on the Thermochemical Recycling of Waste Tyres to Oil for Automobile Engine Application. Energies 2021, 14 (13) , 3837.
    77. Lei Li, Jingcheng Wang, Yong Yu. Pyrolysis of Waste Tire Rubber in the Presence of Sn-bearing Iron Concentrates and its Effect on the Tin Removal from this Iron Concentrate. ISIJ International 2021, 61 (6) , 2002-2008.
    78. Perminder Jit Kaur, Geetanjali Kaushik, Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain, Venkatesh Dutta. Management of waste tyres: properties, life cycle assessment and energy generation. Environmental Sustainability 2021, 4 (2) , 261-271.
    79. Bing Wang, Yuefeng Fu, Hongbin Zheng, Dewang Zeng, Rui Xiao. Catalytic and noncatalytic fast pyrolysis of waste tires to produce high-value monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 2021, 156 , 105131.
    80. Haseeb Yaqoob, Yew Heng Teoh, Muhammad Ahmad Jamil, Mubashir Gulzar. Potential of tire pyrolysis oil as an alternate fuel for diesel engines: A review. Journal of the Energy Institute 2021, 96 , 205-221.
    81. Junqing Xu, Jiaxue Yu, Wenzhi He, Juwen Huang, Junshi Xu, Guangming Li. Recovery of carbon black from waste tire in continuous commercial rotary kiln pyrolysis reactor. Science of The Total Environment 2021, 772 , 145507.
    82. Wang Bing, Zheng Hongbin, Dewang Zeng, Fu Yuefeng, Qiu Yu, Xiao Rui. Microwave fast pyrolysis of waste tires: Effect of microwave power on product composition and quality. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 2021, 155 , 104979.
    83. N. Nkosi, E. Muzenda, J. Gorimbo, M. Belaid. Developments in waste tyre thermochemical conversion processes: gasification, pyrolysis and liquefaction. RSC Advances 2021, 11 (20) , 11844-11871.
    84. Wei Luo, Jun Wan, Zhongyi Fan, Qing Hu, Nan Zhou, Mao Xia, Min Song, Zhiyong Qi, Zhi Zhou. In-situ catalytic pyrolysis of waste tires over clays for high quality pyrolysis products. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 2021, 46 (9) , 6937-6944.
    85. Abhishek Sharma, Deepti Khatri, Rahul Goyal, Alok Agrawal, Vivek Mishra, Dulari Hansdah. Environmentally Friendly Fuel Obtained from Pyrolysis of Waste Tyres. 2021, 185-204.
    86. Pankaj Pathak, Sweta Sinha. Valorisation of waste tires into fuel and energy. 2021, 109-122.
    87. Guohao Zhang, Feng Chen, Yuhao Zhang, Liang Zhao, Jingye Chen, Liyuan Cao, Jinsen Gao, Chunming Xu. Properties and utilization of waste tire pyrolysis oil: A mini review. Fuel Processing Technology 2021, 211 , 106582.
    88. S.M. Gouws, M. Carrier, J.R. Bunt, H.W.J.P. Neomagus. Co-pyrolysis of coal and raw/torrefied biomass: A review on chemistry, kinetics and implementation. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2021, 135 , 110189.
    89. Dr. Anita Sharma, Ruturaj Sawant, Abhishek Sharma, Jyeshtharaj Joshi, Rakesh Kumar Jain, Rajkumar Kasilingam. Valorisation of End-of-Life Tyres for Generating Valuable Resources Under Circular Economy. SSRN Electronic Journal 2021, 68
    90. Dina Czajczyńska, Krzysztof Czajka, Renata Krzyżyńska, Hussam Jouhara. Waste tyre pyrolysis – Impact of the process and its products on the environment. Thermal Science and Engineering Progress 2020, 20 , 100690.
    91. Chandresh Dwivedi, Sampatrao Manjare, Sushil K. Rajan. Recycling of waste tire by pyrolysis to recover carbon black: Alternative & environment-friendly reinforcing filler for natural rubber compounds. Composites Part B: Engineering 2020, 200 , 108346.
    92. Sijie Ma, Huini Leong, Limo He, Zhe Xiong, Hengda Han, Long Jiang, Yi Wang, Song Hu, Sheng Su, Jun Xiang. Effects of pressure and residence time on limonene production in waste tires pyrolysis process. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 2020, 151 , 104899.
    93. Miriam Arabiourrutia, Gartzen Lopez, Maite Artetxe, Jon Alvarez, Javier Bilbao, Martin Olazar. Waste tyre valorization by catalytic pyrolysis – A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2020, 129 , 109932.
    94. Michal Holubčík, Ivana Klačková, Peter Ďurčanský. Pyrolysis Conversion of Polymer Wastes to Noble Fuels in Conditions of the Slovak Republic. Energies 2020, 13 (18) , 4849.
    95. Jianqiao Wang, Boxiong Shen, Meichen Lan, Dongrui Kang, Chunfei Wu. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) production from catalytic pyrolysis of waste plastics: The influence of catalyst and reaction pressure. Catalysis Today 2020, 351 , 50-57.
    96. Juan Daniel Martínez, Felipe Campuzano, Natalia Cardona-Uribe, Cindy Natalia Arenas, Daniel Muñoz-Lopera. Waste tire valorization by intermediate pyrolysis using a continuous twin-auger reactor: Operational features. Waste Management 2020, 113 , 404-412.
    97. Nhlanhla Nkosi, Edison Muzenda, Tirivaviri A. Mamvura, Mohamed Belaid, Bilal Patel. The Development of a Waste Tyre Pyrolysis Production Plant Business Model for the Gauteng Region, South Africa. Processes 2020, 8 (7) , 766.
    98. Jiaxue Yu, Junqing Xu, Zhenchen Li, Wenzhi He, Juwen Huang, Junshi Xu, Guangming Li. Upgrading pyrolytic carbon-blacks (CBp) from end-of-life tires: Characteristics and modification methodologies. Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering 2020, 14 (2)
    99. Ramez Abdallah, Adel Juaidi, Mahmoud Assad, Tareq Salameh, Francisco Manzano-Agugliaro. Energy Recovery from Waste Tires Using Pyrolysis: Palestine as Case of Study. Energies 2020, 13 (7) , 1817.
    100. Anh Tuan Hoang, Tuan Hai Nguyen, Hoang Phuong Nguyen. Scrap tire pyrolysis as a potential strategy for waste management pathway: a review. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects 2020, 45 , 1-18.
    Load all citations

    Pair your accounts.

    Export articles to Mendeley

    Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

    Pair your accounts.

    Export articles to Mendeley

    Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

    You’ve supercharged your research process with ACS and Mendeley!

    STEP 1:
    Click to create an ACS ID

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    Your Mendeley pairing has expired. Please reconnect