ACS Publications. Most Trusted. Most Cited. Most Read
My Activity

Figure 1Loading Img

Scaling-up a Confined Jet Reactor for the Continuous Hydrothermal Manufacture of Nanomaterials

View Author Information
Department of Chemistry, University College London, Christopher Ingold Laboratories, 20 Gordon Street, London, WC1H 0AJ, U.K.
*Tel.: 0207679 4345. Mobile: 07941 928875. E-mail: [email protected]. Web:
Cite this: Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2013, 52, 15, 5270–5281
Publication Date (Web):February 12, 2013
Copyright © 2013 American Chemical Society

    Article Views





    Read OnlinePDF (5 MB)
    Supporting Info (1)»


    A confined jet reactor (mixer) is presented as a novel solution for the scalable continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis (CHFS) of nanoceramics. In CHFS, nanoceramics are formed upon mixing of two streams consisting of an aqueous metal salt solution at room temperature with a flow of less dense supercritical water (at 240 bar and 450 °C). Upon mixing, hydrolysis and dehydration occurs, resulting in the particles being formed in a continuous manner. The confined jet mixer used herein overcomes previous designs of mixers that can accumulate material internally and block. A method for scaling up the jet mixer (reactor) is described, to determine the size of jet mixer (internal mixer diameter 13.5 mm) prior to its use in a newly commissioned pilot plant designed to process flow rates 40 times greater than the equivalent laboratory-scale process (internal mixer diameter 4.6 mm). It was confirmed that the pilot plant scale mixer allowed safe and continuous operation with no blockages at much higher concentrations (i.e., higher molarity) of metal salt precursor than laboratory scale because of the higher velocities and larger physical dimensions of the mixer. Consequently, the pilot plant was used to manufacture nanoparticles at a rate >400 times that of the laboratory-scale process. The synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles was used as a model to compare the properties of particles produced on different production scales. The same model system was also used to assess the limitations of a scale-up strategy based on mass (i.e., increasing the molarity of the metal salt).

    Supporting Information

    Jump To

    Extra information on the design of the pilot plant. Tables ST1 and ST2 and Figures S1–S6. This material is available free of charge via the Internet at

    Terms & Conditions

    Most electronic Supporting Information files are available without a subscription to ACS Web Editions. Such files may be downloaded by article for research use (if there is a public use license linked to the relevant article, that license may permit other uses). Permission may be obtained from ACS for other uses through requests via the RightsLink permission system:

    Cited By

    This article is cited by 83 publications.

    1. Minkang Liu, Yimin Zeng, Jing-Li Luo. Influence of Major Operating Parameters (Temperature, Pressure, and Flow Rate) on the Corrosion of Candidate Alloys for the Construction of Hydrothermal Liquefaction Biorefining Reactors. Energy & Fuels 2022, 36 (6) , 3134-3153.
    2. Alexandra R. Groves, Thomas E. Ashton, Jawwad A. Darr. High Throughput Synthesis and Screening of Oxygen Reduction Catalysts in the MTiO3 (M = Ca, Sr, Ba) Perovskite Phase Diagram. ACS Combinatorial Science 2020, 22 (12) , 750-756.
    3. Ian D. Johnson, Gene Nolis, Kit McColl, Yimin A. Wu, Daisy Thornton, Linhua Hu, Hyun Deog Yoo, John W. Freeland, Furio Corà, Jeremy K. Cockcroft, Ivan P. Parkin, Robert F. Klie, Jordi Cabana, Jawwad A. Darr. Probing Mg Intercalation in the Tetragonal Tungsten Bronze Framework V4Nb18O55. Inorganic Chemistry 2020, 59 (14) , 9783-9797.
    4. Samuel M. Stavis, Jeffrey A. Fagan, Michael Stopa, J. Alexander Liddle. Nanoparticle Manufacturing – Heterogeneity through Processes to Products. ACS Applied Nano Materials 2018, 1 (9) , 4358-4385.
    5. Yu Xu, Stéven Pirou, Philipp Zielke, Søren Bredmose Simonsen, Poul Norby, Peter Vang Hendriksen, and Ragnar Kiebach . Continuous Hydrothermal Flow Synthesis of LaCrO3 in Supercritical Water and Its Application in Dual-Phase Oxygen Transport Membranes. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 2018, 57 (6) , 2123-2130.
    6. Jawwad A. Darr, Jingyi Zhang, Neel M. Makwana, and Xiaole Weng . Continuous Hydrothermal Synthesis of Inorganic Nanoparticles: Applications and Future Directions. Chemical Reviews 2017, 117 (17) , 11125-11238.
    7. Ian D. Johnson, Melanie Loveridge, Rohit Bhagat, and Jawwad A. Darr . Mapping Structure-Composition-Property Relationships in V- and Fe-Doped LiMnPO4 Cathodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries. ACS Combinatorial Science 2016, 18 (11) , 665-672.
    8. Marco Bersani, Kalyani Gupta, Abhishek Kumar Mishra, Roberto Lanza, S. F. Rebecca Taylor, Husn-Ubayda Islam, Nathan Hollingsworth, Christopher Hardacre, Nora H. de Leeuw, and Jawwad A. Darr . Combined EXAFS, XRD, DRIFTS, and DFT Study of Nano Copper-Based Catalysts for CO2 Hydrogenation. ACS Catalysis 2016, 6 (9) , 5823-5833.
    9. Peter Marchand, Neel M. Makwana, Christopher J. Tighe, Robert I. Gruar, Ivan P. Parkin, Claire J. Carmalt, and Jawwad A. Darr . High-Throughput Synthesis, Screening, and Scale-Up of Optimized Conducting Indium Tin Oxides. ACS Combinatorial Science 2016, 18 (2) , 130-137.
    10. Clément J. Denis, Christopher J. Tighe, Robert I. Gruar, Neel M. Makwana, and Jawwad A. Darr . Nucleation and Growth of Cobalt Oxide Nanoparticles in a Continuous Hydrothermal Reactor under Laminar and Turbulent Flow. Crystal Growth & Design 2015, 15 (9) , 4256-4265.
    11. Robert I. Gruar, Christopher J. Tighe, Paul Southern, Quentin A. Pankhurst, and Jawwad A. Darr . A Direct and Continuous Supercritical Water Process for the Synthesis of Surface-Functionalized Nanoparticles. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 2015, 54 (30) , 7436-7451.
    12. Josephine B. M. Goodall, Derek Illsley, Robert Lines, Neel M. Makwana, and Jawwad A. Darr . Structure–Property–Composition Relationships in Doped Zinc Oxides: Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity with Rare Earth Dopants. ACS Combinatorial Science 2015, 17 (2) , 100-112.
    13. Enrique Ruiz-Trejo, Paul Boldrin, Alexandra Lubin, Farid Tariq, Sarah Fearn, Richard Chater, Stuart N. Cook, Alan Atkinson, Robert I. Gruar, Christopher J. Tighe, Jawwad Darr, and Nigel P. Brandon . Novel Composite Cermet for Low-Metal-Content Oxygen Separation Membranes. Chemistry of Materials 2014, 26 (13) , 3887-3895.
    14. Christopher J. Tighe, Raul Quesada Cabrera, Robert I. Gruar, and Jawwad A. Darr . Scale Up Production of Nanoparticles: Continuous Supercritical Water Synthesis of Ce–Zn Oxides. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 2013, 52 (16) , 5522-5528.
    15. Kiwamu Sue, Andreas Kölbl, Manfred Kraut, Roland Dittmeyer. A Microstructured Cover Flow Mixer for Hydrothermal Synthesis of ZnO Nanoparticles in Supercritical Water. Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan 2023, 56 (1)
    16. Banghao Li, Xiaocheng Lan, Tiefeng Wang. Intensification of diethyl methylphosphite synthesis based on kinetics study and CFD modeling. AIChE Journal 2023, 8
    17. Kosei Sato, Ryosuke Sasaki, Bo Xie, Seiichi Takami, Masaki Kubo, Takao Tsukada, Katsumi Sugimoto, Naoya Odaira, Daisuke Ito, Yasushi Saito. Effects of the mixer shape in a flow-type supercritical hydrothermal reactor as evaluated by neutron radiography and CeO 2 nanoparticle synthesis. Reaction Chemistry & Engineering 2023, 42
    18. Lu Liu, Shuzhong Wang, Guanyu Jiang, Baoquan Zhang, Jianqiao Yang, Jinglong Wang, Wei Liu, Yanhui Li, Hui Liu. Solvothermal synthesis of zirconia nanomaterials: Latest developments and future. Ceramics International 2022, 48 (22) , 32649-32676.
    19. Wei Liu, Shuzhong Wang, Jinlong Wang, Baoquan Zhang, Lu Liu, Hui Liu, Jianqiao Yang. Supercritical hydrothermal synthesis of nano-zinc oxide: Process and mechanism. Ceramics International 2022, 48 (16) , 22629-22646.
    20. Jianli Chen, Xiaoxuan Xie, Jiming Liu, Zhiqun Yu, Weike Su. Revisiting aromatic diazotization and aryl diazonium salts in continuous flow: highlighted research during 2001–2021. Reaction Chemistry & Engineering 2022, 7 (6) , 1247-1275.
    21. Daniel Commandeur, Christian Sabado, Thomas E. Ashton, Jawwad A. Darr. Combinatorial Performance Mapping of Near-NMC111 Li-ion Cathodes. Journal of Materiomics 2022, 8 (2) , 437-445.
    22. Kohei Kusada, Hiroshi Kitagawa. Continuous-flow syntheses of alloy nanoparticles. Materials Horizons 2022, 9 (2) , 547-558.
    23. Qingyun Li, Lingyu Liu, Zihua Wang, Xuezhong Wang. Continuous Hydrothermal Flow Synthesis and Characterization of ZrO2 Nanoparticles Doped with CeO2 in Supercritical Water. Nanomaterials 2022, 12 (4) , 668.
    24. Feng Cheng, Catherine E. Brewer. Best practices for bio-crude oil production at pilot scale using continuous flow reactors. 2022, 1061-1119.
    25. Min Kim, Antonio Alfano, Giovanni Perotto, Michele Serri, Nicola Dengo, Alessandro Mezzetti, Silvia Gross, Mirko Prato, Marco Salerno, Antonio Rizzo, Roberto Sorrentino, Enrico Cescon, Gaudenzio Meneghesso, Fabio Di Fonzo, Annamaria Petrozza, Teresa Gatti, Francesco Lamberti. Moisture resistance in perovskite solar cells attributed to a water-splitting layer. Communications Materials 2021, 2 (1)
    26. V. S. Tripathi. Hydrothermal Method for Synthesis of Materials. 2021, 131-152.
    27. Baoquan Zhang, Shuzhong Wang, Yanhui Li, Panpan Sun, Chuang Yang, Dong Wang, Lu Liu. Review: Phase transition mechanism and supercritical hydrothermal synthesis of nano lithium iron phosphate. Ceramics International 2020, 46 (18) , 27922-27939.
    28. Ian D. Johnson, Gene Nolis, Liang Yin, Hyun Deog Yoo, Prakash Parajuli, Arijita Mukherjee, Justin L. Andrews, Mario Lopez, Robert F. Klie, Sarbajit Banerjee, Brian J. Ingram, Saul Lapidus, Jordi Cabana, Jawwad A. Darr. Enhanced charge storage of nanometric ζ-V 2 O 5 in Mg electrolytes. Nanoscale 2020, 12 (43) , 22150-22160.
    29. Olga Długosz, Marcin Banach. Inorganic nanoparticle synthesis in flow reactors – applications and future directions. Reaction Chemistry & Engineering 2020, 5 (9) , 1619-1641.
    30. F. Ruiz-Jorge, J. R. Portela, J. Sánchez-Oneto, E. J. Martínez de la Ossa. Synthesis of Micro- and Nanoparticles in Sub- and Supercritical Water: From the Laboratory to Larger Scales. Applied Sciences 2020, 10 (16) , 5508.
    31. Yijie Xu, Afriyanti Sumboja, Yun Zong, Jawwad A. Darr. Bifunctionally active nanosized spinel cobalt nickel sulfides for sustainable secondary zinc–air batteries: examining the effects of compositional tuning on OER and ORR activity. Catalysis Science & Technology 2020, 10 (7) , 2173-2182.
    32. Khanh-Quang Tran. Nozzle reactor for continuous fast hydrothermal liquefaction of lignin residue. 2020, 83-105.
    33. Dustin Bauer, Thomas E. Ashton, Alexandra R. Groves, Avishek Dey, Satheesh Krishnamurthy, Noriyoshi Matsumi, Jawwad A. Darr. Continuous Hydrothermal Synthesis of Metal Germanates ( M 2 GeO 4 ; M  = Co, Mn, Zn) for High‐Capacity Negative Electrodes in Li‐Ion Batteries. Energy Technology 2020, 8 (1)
    34. Yu Xu, Valentina Musumeci, Cyril Aymonier. Chemistry in supercritical fluids for the synthesis of metal nanomaterials. Reaction Chemistry & Engineering 2019, 4 (12) , 2030-2054.
    35. Dustin Bauer, Thomas E. Ashton, Dan J.L. Brett, Paul R. Shearing, Noriyoshi Matsumi, Jawwad A. Darr. Mixed molybdenum and vanadium oxide nanoparticles with excellent high-power performance as Li-ion battery negative electrodes. Electrochimica Acta 2019, 322 , 134695.
    36. Guanyu Liu, Yuan Sheng, Joel W. Ager, Markus Kraft, Rong Xu. Research advances towards large-scale solar hydrogen production from water. EnergyChem 2019, 1 (2) , 100014.
    37. Xiaojie Yan, William Trevillyan, Ioannina Castano, Yugang Sun, Ralph Muehleisen, Jie Li. Continuous-Flow Synthesis of Thermochromic M-Phase VO 2 Particles via Rapid One-Step Hydrothermal Reaction: Effect of Mixers. Journal of Nanomaterials 2019, 2019 , 1-10.
    38. Hasliza Bahruji, Michael Bowker, Philip R Davies. Influence of $$\hbox {TiO}_{2}$$ TiO 2 structural properties on photocatalytic hydrogen gas production. Journal of Chemical Sciences 2019, 131 (4)
    39. Linhua Hu, Ian D. Johnson, Soojeong Kim, Gene M. Nolis, John W. Freeland, Hyun Deog Yoo, Timothy T. Fister, Liam McCafferty, Thomas E. Ashton, Jawwad A. Darr, Jordi Cabana. Tailoring the electrochemical activity of magnesium chromium oxide towards Mg batteries through control of size and crystal structure. Nanoscale 2019, 11 (2) , 639-646.
    40. Yu Xu, Fatih Özcan, Philipp Zielke, Stefanie Becker, Manuel Heimann, Justus Heese, Kalapu Chakrapani, Malte Behrens, Søren Bredmose Simonsen, Poul Norby, Peter Vang Hendriksen, Ragnar Kiebach. Continuous Hydrothermal Flow Synthesis of Co 1– x Ni x Fe 2 O 4 ( x = 0–0.8) Nanoparticles and Their Catalytic Properties for CO Oxidation and Oxygen Evolution Reaction. Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie 2018, 644 (24) , 1727-1733.
    41. Yijie Xu, Dustin Bauer, Mechthild Lübke, Thomas E. Ashton, Yun Zong, Jawwad A. Darr. High-power sodium titanate anodes; a comparison of lithium vs sodium-ion batteries. Journal of Power Sources 2018, 408 , 28-37.
    42. Pierre Stolzenburg, Thomas Lorenz, Andreas Dietzel, Georg Garnweitner. Microfluidic synthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles via the nonaqueous method. Chemical Engineering Science 2018, 191 , 500-510.
    43. Ian D. Johnson, Thomas E. Ashton, Ekaterina Blagovidova, Glen J. Smales, Mechthild Lübke, Peter J. Baker, Serena A. Corr, Jawwad A. Darr. Mechanistic insights of Li+ diffusion within doped LiFePO4 from Muon Spectroscopy. Scientific Reports 2018, 8 (1)
    44. Muhammad Nadeem Asghar, Aneela Anwar, Hafiz Muhammad Abdur Rahman, Sammia Shahid, Iram Nadeem. Green synthesis and characterization of metal ions-mixed titania for application in dye-sensitized solar cells. Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry 2018, 100 (8-10) , 659-676.
    45. Delphine Malarde, Ian D. Johnson, Ian J. Godfrey, Michael J. Powell, Giannantonio Cibin, Raul Quesada-Cabrera, Jawwad A. Darr, Claire J. Carmalt, Gopinathan Sankar, Ivan P. Parkin, Robert G. Palgrave. Direct and continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis of thermochromic phase pure monoclinic VO 2 nanoparticles. Journal of Materials Chemistry C 2018, 6 (43) , 11731-11739.
    46. Dustin Bauer, Alexander J. Roberts, Chris L. Starkey, Raman Vedarajan, Dan J.L. Brett, Paul R. Shearing, Noriyoshi Matsumi, Jawwad A. Darr. TiO2/MoO2 Nanocomposite as Anode Materials for High Power Li-ion Batteries with Exceptional Capacity. International Journal of Electrochemical Science 2018, 13 (5) , 5120-5140.
    47. Yu Xu, Nicholas Farandos, Massimo Rosa, Philipp Zielke, Vincenzo Esposito, Peter Vang Hendriksen, Søren Højgaard Jensen, Tao Li, Geoffrey Kelsall, Ragnar Kiebach. Continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis of Gd‐doped CeO 2 ( GDC ) nanoparticles for inkjet printing of SOFC electrolytes. International Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology 2018, 15 (2) , 315-327.
    48. Gwyn P. Evans, Michael J. Powell, Ian D. Johnson, Dougal P. Howard, Dustin Bauer, Jawwad A. Darr, Ivan P. Parkin. Room temperature vanadium dioxide–carbon nanotube gas sensors made via continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 2018, 255 , 1119-1129.
    49. Dustin Bauer, Alexander J. Roberts, Sai Gourang Patnaik, Dan J. L. Brett, Paul R. Shearing, Emma Kendrick, Noriyoshi Matsumi, Jawwad A. Darr. High Power Sodium-Ion Batteries and Hybrid Electrochemical Capacitors Using Mo or Nb-Doped Nano-Titania Anodes. Journal of The Electrochemical Society 2018, 165 (9) , A1662-A1670.
    50. Mechthild Lübke, Ding Ning, Ceilidh F. Armer, Dougal Howard, Dan J.L. Brett, Zhaolin Liu, Jawwad A. Darr. Evaluating the Potential Benefits of Metal Ion Doping in SnO 2 Negative Electrodes for Lithium Ion Batteries. Electrochimica Acta 2017, 242 , 400-407.
    51. Dustin Bauer, Alexander J Roberts, Noriyoshi Matsumi, Jawwad A Darr. Nano-sized Mo- and Nb-doped TiO 2 as anode materials for high energy and high power hybrid Li-ion capacitors. Nanotechnology 2017, 28 (19) , 195403.
    52. Mechthild Lübke, Dougal Howard, Ceilidh F. Armer, Aleksandra J. Gardecka, Adrian Lowe, M.V. Reddy, Zhaolin Liu, Jawwad A. Darr. High energy lithium ion battery electrode materials; enhanced charge storage via both alloying and insertion processes. Electrochimica Acta 2017, 231 , 247-254.
    53. B. Robinson, A. Tabecki, S. Paul, G. Shi, A. Mills, I. P. Parkin, J. A. Darr, H. L. de Villiers Lovelock. A Comparison of the Potential Capability of SFS, SPS and HVSFS for the Production of Photocatalytic Titania Coatings. Journal of Thermal Spray Technology 2017, 26 (1-2) , 161-172.
    54. L. McCafferty, C. O'Rourke, A. Mills, A. Kafizas, I. P. Parkin, J. A. Darr. Light-driven generation of chlorine and hydrogen from brine using highly selective Ru/Ti oxide redox catalysts. Sustainable Energy & Fuels 2017, 1 (2) , 254-257.
    55. M. J. Loveridge, M. J. Lain, I. D. Johnson, A. Roberts, S. D. Beattie, R. Dashwood, J. A. Darr, R. Bhagat. Towards High Capacity Li-ion Batteries Based on Silicon-Graphene Composite Anodes and Sub-micron V-doped LiFePO4 Cathodes. Scientific Reports 2016, 6 (1)
    56. Philipp Zielke, Yu Xu, Søren Bredmose Simonsen, Poul Norby, Ragnar Kiebach. Simulation, design and proof-of-concept of a two-stage continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis reactor for synthesis of functionalized nano-sized inorganic composite materials. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids 2016, 117 , 1-12.
    57. WangLong Wang, Qingjie Meng, Xiaole Weng, Zhongbiao Wu. Rapid syntheses of ultrafine LaMnO3 nano-crystallites with superior activity for catalytic oxidation of toluene. Catalysis Communications 2016, 84 , 167-170.
    58. Ian D. Johnson, Ekaterina Blagovidova, Paul A. Dingwall, Dan J.L. Brett, Paul R. Shearing, Jawwad A. Darr. High power Nb-doped LiFePO4 Li-ion battery cathodes; pilot-scale synthesis and electrochemical properties. Journal of Power Sources 2016, 326 , 476-481.
    59. Mechthild Lübke, Ning Ding, Michael J. Powell, Dan J.L. Brett, Paul R. Shearing, Zhaolin Liu, Jawwad A. Darr. VO2 nano-sheet negative electrodes for lithium-ion batteries. Electrochemistry Communications 2016, 64 , 56-60.
    60. Mechthild Lübke, Afriyanti Sumboja, Ian D. Johnson, Dan J.L. Brett, Paul R. Shearing, Zhaolin Liu, Jawwad A. Darr. High power nano-Nb2O5 negative electrodes for lithium-ion batteries. Electrochimica Acta 2016, 192 , 363-369.
    61. Mechthild Lübke, Peter Marchand, Dan J.L. Brett, Paul Shearing, Robert Gruar, Zhaolin Liu, Jawwad A. Darr. High power layered titanate nano-sheets as pseudocapacitive lithium-ion battery anodes. Journal of Power Sources 2016, 305 , 115-121.
    62. Neel M. Makwana, Christopher J. Tighe, Robert I. Gruar, Paul F. McMillan, Jawwad A. Darr. Pilot plant scale continuous hydrothermal synthesis of nano-titania; effect of size on photocatalytic activity. Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing 2016, 42 , 131-137.
    63. Ian D. Johnson, Mechthild Lübke, On Ying Wu, Neel M. Makwana, Glen J. Smales, Husn U. Islam, Rashmi Y. Dedigama, Robert I. Gruar, Christopher J. Tighe, David O. Scanlon, Furio Corà, Dan J.L. Brett, Paul R. Shearing, Jawwad A. Darr. Pilot-scale continuous synthesis of a vanadium-doped LiFePO4/C nanocomposite high-rate cathodes for lithium-ion batteries. Journal of Power Sources 2016, 302 , 410-418.
    64. Peter W. Dunne, Edward Lester, Richard I. Walton. Towards scalable and controlled synthesis of metal–organic framework materials using continuous flow reactors. Reaction Chemistry & Engineering 2016, 1 (4) , 352-360.
    65. D. P. Howard, P. Marchand, I. D. Johnson, C. J. Carmalt, I. P. Parkin, J. A. Darr. Conducting Al and Ga-doped zinc oxides; rapid optimisation and scale-up. Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2016, 4 (33) , 12774-12780.
    66. Kalyani Gupta, Marco Bersani, Jawwad A. Darr. Highly efficient electro-reduction of CO 2 to formic acid by nano-copper. Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2016, 4 (36) , 13786-13794.
    67. T. A. Nirmal Peiris, S. Ghanizadeh, D. S. Y. Jayathilake, D. A. Hutt, K. G. U. Wijayantha, P. P. Conway, D. J. Southee, I. P. Parkin, P. Marchand, J. A. Darr, C. J. Carmalt. Aerosol-assisted fabrication of tin-doped indium oxide ceramic thin films from nanoparticle suspensions. Journal of Materials Chemistry C 2016, 4 (24) , 5739-5746.
    68. Mechthild Lübke, Ian Johnson, Neel M. Makwana, Dan Brett, Paul Shearing, Zhaolin Liu, Jawwad A. Darr. High power TiO2 and high capacity Sn-doped TiO2 nanomaterial anodes for lithium-ion batteries. Journal of Power Sources 2015, 294 , 94-102.
    69. Anupriya J.T. Naik, Robert Gruar, Christopher J. Tighe, Ivan P. Parkin, Jawwad A. Darr, Russell Binions. Environmental sensing semiconducting nanoceramics made using a continuous hydrothermal synthesis pilot plant. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 2015, 217 , 136-145.
    70. Mechthild Lübke, Neel M. Makwana, Robert Gruar, Chris Tighe, Dan Brett, Paul Shearing, Zhaolin Liu, Jawwad A. Darr. High capacity nanocomposite Fe3O4/Fe anodes for Li-ion batteries. Journal of Power Sources 2015, 291 , 102-107.
    71. Cai Y. Ma, Jing J. Liu, Yang Zhang, Xue Z. Wang. Simulation for scale-up of a confined jet mixer for continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis of nanomaterials. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids 2015, 98 , 211-221.
    72. B. W. Robinson, C. J. Tighe, R. I. Gruar, A. Mills, I. P. Parkin, A. K. Tabecki, H. L. de Villiers Lovelock, J. A. Darr. Suspension plasma sprayed coatings using dilute hydrothermally produced titania feedstocks for photocatalytic applications. Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2015, 3 (24) , 12680-12689.
    73. Paul Boldrin, Enrique Ruiz-Trejo, Jingwen Yu, Robert I. Gruar, Christopher J. Tighe, Kee-Chul Chang, Jan Ilavsky, Jawwad A. Darr, Nigel Brandon. Nanoparticle scaffolds for syngas-fed solid oxide fuel cells. Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2015, 3 (6) , 3011-3018.
    74. M. J. Powell, P. Marchand, C. J. Denis, J. C. Bear, J. A. Darr, I. P. Parkin. Direct and continuous synthesis of VO 2 nanoparticles. Nanoscale 2015, 7 (44) , 18686-18693.
    75. Mechthild Lübke, Juhun Shin, Peter Marchand, Dan Brett, Paul Shearing, Zhaolin Liu, Jawwad A. Darr. Highly pseudocapacitive Nb-doped TiO 2 high power anodes for lithium-ion batteries. Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2015, 3 (45) , 22908-22914.
    76. M. Daschner de Tercero, C. Röder, U. Fehrenbacher, U. Teipel, M. Türk. Continuous supercritical hydrothermal synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticle dispersions and their characterization. Journal of Nanoparticle Research 2014, 16 (4)
    77. Cai Y. Ma, Man Chen, Xue Z. Wang. Modelling and simulation of counter-current and confined jet reactors for hydrothermal synthesis of nano-materials. Chemical Engineering Science 2014, 109 , 26-37.
    78. Vesna Middelkoop, Christopher J. Tighe, Suela Kellici, Robert I. Gruar, James M. Perkins, Simon D.M. Jacques, Paul Barnes, Jawwad A. Darr. Imaging the continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis of nanoparticulate CeO2 at different supercritical water temperatures using in situ angle-dispersive diffraction. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids 2014, 87 , 118-128.
    79. Dipesh Patel, Suela Kellici, Basudeb Saha. Green Process Engineering as the Key to Future Processes. Processes 2014, 2 (1) , 311-332.
    80. Josephine B. M. Goodall, Suela Kellici, Derek Illsley, Robert Lines, Jonathan C. Knowles, Jawwad A. Darr. Optical and photocatalytic behaviours of nanoparticles in the Ti–Zn–O binary system. RSC Advances 2014, 4 (60) , 31799.
    81. Sacha Noimark, Kristopher Page, Joseph C. Bear, Carlos Sotelo-Vazquez, Raul Quesada-Cabrera, Yao Lu, Elaine Allan, Jawwad A. Darr, Ivan P. Parkin. Functionalised gold and titania nanoparticles and surfaces for use as antimicrobial coatings. Faraday Discuss. 2014, 175 , 273-287.
    82. Rongshan Bi, Xia Yang, Xinshun Tan, Shiqing Zheng. A Method to Predict Phosgenation Reaction Performance To Produce Toluene Diisocyanate in Jet Reactors. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 2013, 52 (44) , 15353-15358.
    83. Xuemin Li, Yin Qiu, Shasha Wang, Shan Lu, Robert I. Gruar, Xuehua Zhang, Jawwad A. Darr, Tao He. Electrophoretically deposited TiO2 compact layers using aqueous suspension for dye-sensitized solar cells. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 2013, 15 (35) , 14729.

    Pair your accounts.

    Export articles to Mendeley

    Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

    Pair your accounts.

    Export articles to Mendeley

    Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

    You’ve supercharged your research process with ACS and Mendeley!

    STEP 1:
    Click to create an ACS ID

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    Your Mendeley pairing has expired. Please reconnect