Pair your accounts.

Export articles to Mendeley

Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

Pair your accounts.

Export articles to Mendeley

Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

You’ve supercharged your research process with ACS and Mendeley!

STEP 1:
Click to create an ACS ID

Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

MENDELEY PAIRING EXPIRED
Your Mendeley pairing has expired. Please reconnect
ACS Publications. Most Trusted. Most Cited. Most Read
My Activity
CONTENT TYPES

Figure 1Loading Img

Areas with High Concentrations of Selenium in the Soil and Forage Produce Beef with Enhanced Concentrations of Selenium

View Author Information
Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Grand Forks, North Dakota 58202-9034, and Department of Animal and Range Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota 58105
Cite this: J. Agric. Food Chem. 2001, 49, 2, 1062–1067
Publication Date (Web):January 16, 2001
https://doi.org/10.1021/jf000699s
Copyright © 2001 American Chemical Society

    Article Views

    503

    Altmetric

    -

    Citations

    LEARN ABOUT THESE METRICS
    Other access options

    Abstract

    Beef provides a significant portion of human dietary selenium (Se), and it is possible that modest portions of beef produced in areas with high-Se soil and forage could provide the entire Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for Se. The present study has addressed the environmental conditions that resulted in the production of high-Se beef. One hundred and thirty-eight cull cows were obtained from 21 ranches in five distinct geographic regions that, on the basis of soil parent material, reports of Se deficiency, and previous soil and forage Se surveys, were likely to have high or low Se concentrations in the soil. Grass and soil samples were taken from ranch sites, and hair, whole blood, skeletal muscle, diaphragm muscle, and liver samples were obtained from the animals. Hair and whole blood samples were taken 1 day prior to shipping. Selenium concentrations of all samples were determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectroscopy. Geographic origin affected Se content of all samples (p < 0.05). Selenium concentrations in soil (r = 0.53; p < 0.01) and grass (r = 0.63; p < 0.01) were correlated to Se content of skeletal muscle. Selenium concentrations in whole blood, diaphragm, hair, and liver also were significantly correlated to Se content of skeletal muscle (p < 0.01). Cows that received Se in mineral supplements did not have significantly higher concentrations of Se in sampled tissues (p > 0.05). Results of this study suggest that the greatest source of variation in Se content of bovine skeletal muscle was the geographic region from which the beef originated and not production or management practices. Results also demonstrated that a 100 g serving of high-Se beef could provide 100% of the RDA for Se.

    Keywords: Selenium; beef; soil

    Read this article

    To access this article, please review the available access options below.

    Get instant access

    Purchase Access

    Read this article for 48 hours. Check out below using your ACS ID or as a guest.

    Recommended

    Access through Your Institution

    You may have access to this article through your institution.

    Your institution does not have access to this content. You can change your affiliated institution below.

     U.S. Department of Agriculture.

    *

     Address correspondence to this author at the USDA, ARS, Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center, P.O. Box 9034, Grand Forks, ND 58202-9034 [telephone (701) 795-8416; fax (701) 795-8220; e-mail [email protected]].

     North Dakota State University.

    Cited By

    This article is cited by 68 publications.

    1. María V. Baroni, Natalia S. Podio, Raúl G. Badini, Marcela Inga, Héctor A. Ostera, Mariana Cagnoni, Ernesto Gallegos, Eduardo Gautier, Pilar Peral-García, Jurian Hoogewerff, and Daniel A. Wunderlin . How Much Do Soil and Water Contribute to the Composition of Meat? A Case Study: Meat from Three Areas of Argentina. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2011, 59 (20) , 11117-11128. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf2023929
    2. Korry J. Hintze,, Gregory P. Lardy,, Martin J. Marchello, and, John W. Finley. Selenium Accumulation in Beef:  Effect of Dietary Selenium and Geographical Area of Animal Origin. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2002, 50 (14) , 3938-3942. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf011200c
    3. Marta Juszczak-Czasnojć, Agnieszka Tomza-Marciniak, Bogumiła Pilarczyk, Dariusz Gączarzewicz. Total Selenium Level and Its Distribution between Organs in Beef Cattle in Different Selenium Status. Animals 2023, 13 (24) , 3885. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13243885
    4. Niels Hadrup, Gitte Ravn-Haren. Toxicity of repeated oral intake of organic selenium, inorganic selenium, and selenium nanoparticles: A review. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 2023, 79 , 127235. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2023.127235
    5. Xin Gen Lei, Gerald F. Combs, Roger A. Sunde, Joel S. Caton, John D. Arthington, Marko Z. Vatamaniuk. Dietary Selenium Across Species. Annual Review of Nutrition 2022, 42 (1) , 337-375. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-062320-121834
    6. Dominika Radomska, Robert Czarnomysy, Dominik Radomski, Anna Bielawska, Krzysztof Bielawski. Selenium as a Bioactive Micronutrient in the Human Diet and Its Cancer Chemopreventive Activity. Nutrients 2021, 13 (5) , 1649. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051649
    7. . A Comprehensive Review of Nutritional Benefits of Minerals in Meat and Meat Products. Science Letters 2021, 55-64. https://doi.org/10.47262/SL/9.2.132021010
    8. Soohyun Cho, Yongmin Choi, Kuk-Hwan Seol, Sun Moon Kang, Hoa Ban Va, Yoon-Seok Kim, Jin-Hyoung Kim, Pil-Nam Seong, Sung-Sil Moon, Hyun-Woo Seo. Comparison of Chemical, Mineral and Vitamin Composition of Primal and Retail Cuts of 1 + Grade Hanwoo Steer Beef. Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition 2021, 50 (4) , 369-383. https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2021.50.4.369
    9. Kamal Belhaj, Farid Mansouri, Abdessamad Ben moumen, Marianne Sindic, Marie-Laure Fauconnier, Mohamed Boukharta, Hana Serghini Caid, Ahmed Elamrani, . Proximate Composition, Amino Acid Profile, and Mineral Content of Four Sheep Meats Reared Extensively in Morocco: A Comparative Study. The Scientific World Journal 2021, 2021 , 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/6633774
    10. Martyna Momot, Zenon Nogalski, Paulina Pogorzelska-Przybyłek, Monika Sobczuk-Szul. Influence of Genotype and Slaughter Age on the Content of Selected Minerals and Fatty Acids in the Longissimus Thoracis Muscle of Crossbred Bulls. Animals 2020, 10 (11) , 2004. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10112004
    11. Ashwin Dapkekar, Paresh Deshpande, Manoj D. Oak, Kishore M. Paknikar, Jyutika M. Rajwade. Getting more micronutrients from wheat and barley through agronomic biofortification. 2020, 53-99. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-818444-8.00003-1
    12. Mariusz Rudy, Jagoda Żurek, Renata Stanisławczyk, Marian Gil, Paulina Duma‐Kocan, Grzegorz Zaguła, Stanisław Rudy. Analysis of the impact of determinants of kosherness on the content of macro‐ and microelements in beef. Food Science & Nutrition 2019, 7 (11) , 3463-3470. https://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.1192
    13. Eun Yeong Nho, Ji Yeon Choi, Cheong Mi Lee, Yun Mi Dang, Naeem Khan, Nargis Jamila, Kyong Su Kim. Origin Authentication of Pork Fat via Elemental Composition, Isotope Ratios, and Multivariate Chemometric Analyses. Analytical Letters 2019, 52 (9) , 1445-1461. https://doi.org/10.1080/00032719.2018.1545133
    14. Anatoly V. Skalny, Tatiana I. Burtseva, Elena V. Salnikova, Olga P. Ajsuvakova, Margarita G. Skalnaya, Anatoly A. Kirichuk, Alexey A. Tinkov. Geographic variation of environmental, food, and human hair selenium content in an industrial region of Russia. Environmental Research 2019, 171 , 293-301. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2019.01.038
    15. A. Saadoun, M.C. Cabrera. A review of productive parameters, nutritive value and technological characteristics of farmed nutria meat (Myocastor coypus). Meat Science 2019, 148 , 137-149. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2018.10.006
    16. Aly Farag El Sheikha. How to Determine the Geographical Origin of Food by Molecular Techniques. 2018, 1-26. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119374633.ch1
    17. Ilias Giannenas, Pavlos Nisianakis, Ioannis Sarakatsianos, Eleftherios Bonos, Efterpi Christaki, Panagiota Florou-Paneri. Trace and Major Elements Content of Cereals and Proteinaceous Feeds in Greece Analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. 2018, 197-223. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-811442-1.00006-7
    18. Jae Sung Kim, In Min Hwang, Ga Hyun Lee, Yu Min Park, Ji Yeon Choi, Nargis Jamila, Naeem Khan, Kyong Su Kim. Geographical origin authentication of pork using multi-element and multivariate data analyses. Meat Science 2017, 123 , 13-20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2016.08.011
    19. Stéphane Mombo, Eva Schreck, Camille Dumat, Christophe Laplanche, Antoine Pierart, Mélanie Longchamp, Philippe Besson, Maryse Castrec-Rouelle. Bioaccessibility of selenium after human ingestion in relation to its chemical species and compartmentalization in maize. Environmental Geochemistry and Health 2016, 38 (3) , 869-883. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-015-9767-z
    20. Antonios Vlachos, Ioannis S. Arvanitoyannis, Persefoni Tserkezou. An Updated Review of Meat Authenticity Methods and Applications. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 2016, 56 (7) , 1061-1096. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2012.691573
    21. Sharon E. Benes, Peter H. Robinson, Grace S. Cun. Depletion of selenium in blood, liver and muscle from beef heifers previously fed forages containing high levels of selenium. Science of The Total Environment 2015, 536 , 603-608. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.07.096
    22. Chiara Frazzoli, Beatrice Bocca, Alberto Mantovani. The One Health Perspective in Trace Elements Biomonitoring. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B 2015, 18 (7-8) , 344-370. https://doi.org/10.1080/10937404.2015.1085473
    23. Yu-xuan Song, Jin-xing Hou, Lei Zhang, Jian-gang Wang, Xiao-rui Liu, Zhan-qin Zhou, Bin-yun Cao. Effect of Dietary Selenomethionine Supplementation on Growth Performance, Tissue Se Concentration, and Blood Glutathione Peroxidase Activity in Kid Boer Goats. Biological Trace Element Research 2015, 167 (2) , 242-250. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-015-0316-5
    24. Maurizio Aceto. Food Forensics. 2015, 441-514. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-63340-8.00009-1
    25. M.C. Cabrera, A. Saadoun. An overview of the nutritional value of beef and lamb meat from South America. Meat Science 2014, 98 (3) , 435-444. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2014.06.033
    26. Matthias Schmutzler, Christian W. Huck. Automatic sample rotation for simultaneous determination of geographical origin and quality characteristics of apples based on near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Vibrational Spectroscopy 2014, 72 , 97-104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vibspec.2014.02.010
    27. Renata Pilarczyk. Concentrations of Toxic and Nutritional Essential Elements in Meat from Different Beef Breeds Reared under Intensive Production Systems. Biological Trace Element Research 2014, 158 (1) , 36-44. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-014-9913-y
    28. Miriam Díaz-García, Maria Rosario Castellar, José María Obón. Juices and Non-Alcoholic Beverages. 2013, 439-459. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-59562-1.00017-7
    29. B. Beladel, B. Nedjimi, A. Mansouri, D. Tahtat, M. Belamri, A. Tchanchane, F. Khelfaoui, M.E.A. Benamar. Selenium content in wheat and estimation of the selenium daily intake in different regions of Algeria. Applied Radiation and Isotopes 2013, 71 (1) , 7-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2012.09.009
    30. Soon HwangBo, Ik Hwan Jo, Guk Won Kim, Chang Weon Choi, Sung Hoon Lee, Ouk Kyu Han, Tae Il Park, In Bae Choi. Influences of Feeding Seleniferous Whole Crop Barley on Growth Performance, Blood and Carcass Characteristics, and Tissue Selenium Deposition in Finishing Barrows. Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources 2012, 32 (6) , 828-834. https://doi.org/10.5851/kosfa.2012.32.6.828
    31. A. Ramos, M.C. Cabrera, A. Saadoun. Bioaccessibility of Se, Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe, and heme iron content in unaged and aged meat of Hereford and Braford steers fed pasture. Meat Science 2012, 91 (2) , 116-124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2012.01.001
    32. Sung-Hoon Lee, Ik-Hwan Jo, Guk-Won Kim, Soon HwangBo, Ouk-Kyu Han, Tae-Hwa Song, Tae-Il Park, In-Bae Choi. Influences of Seleniferous Whole Crop Barley Supplement on Growth Performance and Blood Characteristics in Growing Pigs. Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science 2012, 32 (1) , 39-48. https://doi.org/10.5333/KGFS.2012.32.1.39
    33. Sérgio O. Juchem, Sharon E. Benes, P.H. Robinson, Stephen R. Grattan, Pablo Vasquez, Pablo Chilibroste, Martin Brito. Grazing as an alternative for utilization of saline-sodic soils in the San Joaquin Valley: Selenium accretion and performance of beef heifers. Science of The Total Environment 2012, 419 , 44-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.06.016
    34. Pedro Cintas, Emanuela Calcio-Gaudino, Giancarlo Cravotto. Pharmaceutical and Nutraceutical Compounds from Natural Matrices. 2012, 181-206. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-4830-3_7
    35. Julia B. Montgomery, Jeffrey J. Wichtel, Maureen G. Wichtel, Mary A. McNiven, JT. McClure. The efficacy of selenium treatment of forage for the correction of selenium deficiency in horses. Animal Feed Science and Technology 2011, 170 (1-2) , 63-71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2011.07.018
    36. P. J. Gerla, M. U. Sharif, S. F. Korom. Geochemical processes controlling the spatial distribution of selenium in soil and water, west central South Dakota, USA. Environmental Earth Sciences 2011, 62 (7) , 1551-1560. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-010-0641-0
    37. C.J. Richards, H.M. Blalock, K.A. Jacques, H.D. Loveday. Efficacy of feeding selenium-enriched yeast to finishing beef cattle. The Professional Animal Scientist 2011, 27 (1) , 1-8. https://doi.org/10.15232/S1080-7446(15)30437-X
    38. T. L. Neville, D. A. Redmer, P. P. Borowicz, J. J. Reed, M. A. Ward, M. L. Johnson, J. B. Taylor, S. A. Soto-Navarro, K. A. Vonnahme, L. P. Reynolds, J. S. Caton. Maternal dietary restriction and selenium supply alters messenger ribonucleic acid expression of angiogenic factors in maternal intestine, mammary gland, and fetal jejunal tissues during late gestation in pregnant ewe lambs1. Journal of Animal Science 2010, 88 (8) , 2692-2702. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2009-2706
    39. M.C. Cabrera, A. Ramos, A. Saadoun, G. Brito. Selenium, copper, zinc, iron and manganese content of seven meat cuts from Hereford and Braford steers fed pasture in Uruguay. Meat Science 2010, 84 (3) , 518-528. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2009.10.007
    40. W.P. Weiss, N.R. St-Pierre. A method to quantify changes in supply of metabolizable methionine to dairy cows using concentrations of selenium in milk. Journal of Dairy Science 2009, 92 (6) , 2835-2842. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2008-1882
    41. Vladimir I. Fisinin, Tigran T. Papazyan, Peter F. Surai. Producing selenium-enriched eggs and meat to improve the selenium status of the general population. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology 2009, 29 (1) , 18-28. https://doi.org/10.1080/07388550802658030
    42. Zoyne Pedrero, Yolanda Madrid. Novel approaches for selenium speciation in foodstuffs and biological specimens: A review. Analytica Chimica Acta 2009, 634 (2) , 135-152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2008.12.026
    43. N. Gerber, R. Brogioli, B. Hattendorf, M.R.L. Scheeder, C. Wenk, D. Günther. Variability of selected trace elements of different meat cuts determined by ICP-MS and DRC-ICPMS. Animal 2009, 3 (1) , 166-172. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731108003212
    44. A.C. Pappas, E. Zoidis, P.F. Surai, G. Zervas. Selenoproteins and maternal nutrition. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 2008, 151 (4) , 361-372. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpb.2008.08.009
    45. Bettina M. Franke, Max Haldimann, Gérard Gremaud, Jacques-Olivier Bosset, Ruedi Hadorn, Michael Kreuzer. Element signature analysis: its validation as a tool for geographic authentication of the origin of dried beef and poultry meat. European Food Research and Technology 2008, 227 (3) , 701-708. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-007-0776-8
    46. Karl Heaton, Simon D. Kelly, Jurian Hoogewerff, Mark Woolfe. Verifying the geographical origin of beef: The application of multi-element isotope and trace element analysis. Food Chemistry 2008, 107 (1) , 506-515. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.08.010
    47. Dion M.A.M. Luykx, Saskia M. van Ruth. An overview of analytical methods for determining the geographical origin of food products. Food Chemistry 2008, 107 (2) , 897-911. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.09.038
    48. Chihaya Koriyama, Francia I. Campos, Megumi Yamamoto, Mauricio Serra, Gabriel Carrasquilla, Edwin Carrascal, Suminori Akiba. Toenail selenium levels and gastric cancer risk in Cali, Colombia. The Journal of Toxicological Sciences 2008, 33 (2) , 227-235. https://doi.org/10.2131/jts.33.227
    49. Holly J. R. Popham, Kent S. Shelby. Effect of inorganic and organic forms of selenium supplementation on development of larval Heliothis virescens. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 2007, 125 (2) , 171-178. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1570-7458.2007.00609.x
    50. Peihong Qiu, Changchun Ai, Li Lin, Jianzhang Wu, Faqing Ye. Simultaneous determination of selenium and arsenic contents in different extracts of Radix Astragali by enhancement effect of ethanol in hydride generation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Microchemical Journal 2007, 87 (1) , 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.microc.2007.04.001
    51. John Weldon Finley. Increased intakes of selenium‐enriched foods may benefit human health. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 2007, 87 (9) , 1620-1629. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2943
    52. Bettina M. Franke, Max Haldimann, Jürg Reimann, Beatrice Baumer, Gérard Gremaud, Ruedi Hadorn, Jacques-Olivier Bosset, Michael Kreuzer. Indications for the applicability of element signature analysis for the determination of the geographic origin of dried beef and poultry meat. European Food Research and Technology 2007, 225 (3-4) , 501-509. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-006-0446-2
    53. E. Skřivanová, M. Marounek, S. De Smet, K. Raes. Influence of dietary selenium and vitamin E on quality of veal. Meat Science 2007, 76 (3) , 495-500. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2007.01.003
    54. Anna Haug, Robin D. Graham, Olav A. Christophersen, Graham H. Lyons. How to use the world's scarce selenium resources efficiently to increase the selenium concentration in food. Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease 2007, 19 (4) , 209-228. https://doi.org/10.1080/08910600701698986
    55. . Effects of the Supplementation Period of Spent Composts of Selenium-Enriched Mushrooms on Plasma Glutathione Peroxidase Activity and Selenium Deposition in Finishing Hanwoo Steers. Journal of Animal Science and Technology 2006, 897-906. https://doi.org/10.5187/JAST.2006.48.6.897
    56. D. W. Franzen, T. Nanna, W. A. Norvell. A Survey of Soil Attributes in North Dakota by Landscape Position. Agronomy Journal 2006, 98 (4) , 1015-1022. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj2005.0283
    57. Anna-Sigrid Keck, John W. Finley. Database values do not reflect selenium contents of grain, cereals, and other foods grown or purchased in the upper Midwest of the United States. Nutrition Research 2006, 26 (1) , 17-22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2005.11.009
    58. . Effects of Organic Selenium Mix on the Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Tissue Selenium Distribution, and Economic Value in Finishing Hanwoo Steers. Journal of Animal Science and Technology 2005, 975-984. https://doi.org/10.5187/JAST.2005.47.6.975
    59. Bettina M. Franke, Gérard Gremaud, Ruedi Hadorn, Michael Kreuzer. Geographic origin of meat—elements of an analytical approach to its authentication. European Food Research and Technology 2005, 221 (3-4) , 493-503. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-005-1158-8
    60. Irina Rudik Miksa, Carol L. Buckley, Nancy P. Carpenter, Robert H. Poppenga. Comparison of Selenium Determination in Liver Samples by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and Inductively Coupled Plasma–Mass Spectrometry. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 2005, 17 (4) , 331-340. https://doi.org/10.1177/104063870501700405
    61. JOHN W. FINLEY. Proposed Criteria for Assessing the Efficacy of Cancer Reduction by Plant Foods Enriched in Carotenoids, Glucosinolates, Polyphenols and Selenocompounds. Annals of Botany 2005, 95 (7) , 1075-1096. https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mci123
    62. P. Smrkolj, L. Pograjc, C. Hlastan-Ribič, V. Stibilj. Selenium content in selected Slovenian foodstuffs and estimated daily intakes of selenium. Food Chemistry 2005, 90 (4) , 691-697. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.04.028
    63. . Effects of Spent Composts of Se-Enriched Mushrooms on Carcass Characteristics, Plasma GSH-Px Activity, and Se Deposition in Finishing Hanwoo Steers. Journal of Animal Science and Technology 2004, 799-810. https://doi.org/10.5187/JAST.2004.46.5.799
    64. J.A. Milner. Molecular Targets for Bioactive Food Components. The Journal of Nutrition 2004, 134 (9) , 2492S-2498S. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/134.9.2492S
    65. P. Gatellier, Y. Mercier, M. Renerre. Effect of diet finishing mode (pasture or mixed diet) on antioxidant status of Charolais bovine meat. Meat Science 2004, 67 (3) , 385-394. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2003.11.009
    66. P Smrkolj, V Stibilj. Determination of selenium in vegetables by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Analytica Chimica Acta 2004, 512 (1) , 11-17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2004.02.033
    67. S. A. Soto-Navarro, T. L. Lawler, J. B. Taylor, L. P. Reynolds, J. J. Reed, J. W. Finley, J. S. Caton. Effect of high-selenium wheat on visceral organ mass, and intestinal cellularity and vascularity in finishing beef steers1. Journal of Animal Science 2004, 82 (6) , 1788-1793. https://doi.org/10.2527/2004.8261788x
    68. T. L. Lawler, J. B. Taylor, J. W. Finley, J. S. Caton. Effect of supranutritional and organically bound selenium on performance, carcass characteristics, and selenium distribution in finishing beef steers1. Journal of Animal Science 2004, 82 (5) , 1488-1493. https://doi.org/10.2527/2004.8251488x