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Surface Presentation of Functional Peptides in Solution Determines Cell Internalization Efficiency of TAT Conjugated Nanoparticles

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Health Innovations Research Institute, RMIT University, GPO Box 2476, Melbourne, VIC Australia
Department of Materials, Department of Bioengineering, and Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7, U.K.
*(I.Y.) (theoretical) E-mail: [email protected]. Phone: +61 3 9925 2571.
*(M.M.S.) (experimental) E-mail: [email protected]. Phone: +44 (0)20 7594 6804.
Cite this: Nano Lett. 2014, 14, 9, 5229–5237
Publication Date (Web):August 26, 2014
Copyright © 2014 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract Image

    Functionalizing nanoparticles with cell-penetrating peptides is a popular choice for cellular delivery. We investigated the effects of TAT peptide concentration and arrangement in solution on functionalized nanoparticles’ efficacy for membrane permeation. We found that cell internalization correlates with the positive charge distribution achieved prior to nanoparticle encountering interactions with membrane. We identified a combination of solution based properties required to maximize the internalization efficacy of TAT-functionalized nanoparticles.

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    Additional details on experimental setup materials; nanoparticle synthesis, cell culture, transmission electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma-atomic ion spectroscopy, and simulation details; supplementary results on the radius of gyration and solvent accessible surface area of different components at different temperatures, CALNN–TAT coverage, arrangement and in-salt solution; FTIR and UV–vis absorption spectra of functionalized AuNPs; quantification data of internalized 5 nm AuNPs by HeLa cells. This material is available free of charge via the Internet at

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