ACS Publications. Most Trusted. Most Cited. Most Read
My Activity
CONTENT TYPES

Role of Liquid Indium in the Structural Purity of Wurtzite InAs Nanowires That Grow on Si(111)

View Author Information
University of Siegen, Faculty of Science and Technology, Solid State Physics, 57072 Siegen, Germany
Paul-Drude-Institut für Festkörperelektronik, 10117 Berlin, Germany
§ Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, 01328 Dresden, Germany
Quantum Beam Science Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1-1-1 Koto, Sayo-cho, Hyogo 679-5148, Japan
Cite this: Nano Lett. 2014, 14, 12, 6878–6883
Publication Date (Web):November 16, 2014
https://doi.org/10.1021/nl502878a
Copyright © 2014 American Chemical Society

    Article Views

    901

    Altmetric

    -

    Citations

    LEARN ABOUT THESE METRICS
    Other access options

    Abstract

    Abstract Image

    InAs nanowires that grow catalyst-free along the [111] crystallographic orientation are prone to wurtzite-zincblende polytypism, making the control of the crystal phase highly challenging. In this work, we explore the dynamic relation between the growth conditions and the structural composition of the nanowires using time-resolved X-ray scattering and diffraction measurements during the growth by molecular beam epitaxy. A spontaneous buildup of liquid indium is directly observed in the beginning of the growth process and associated with the simultaneous nucleation of InAs nanowires predominantly in the wurtzite phase. The highly arsenic-rich growth conditions that we used limited the existence of the liquid indium to a short time interval, which is defined as the nucleation phase. After their nucleation, the nanowires grow in the absence of liquid indium, and with a highly defective wurtzite structure. Complementary ex-situ diffuse X-ray scattering measurements and modeling revealed that this structural degradation is due to the formation of densely spaced stacking faults. Thus, high wurtzite phase purity is associated with the presence of liquid indium. This finding implies that pure wurtzite nanowires may be obtained only if the growth is performed under the continuous presence of liquid indium at the growth interface, that is, in the vapor–liquid–solid mode.

    Read this article

    To access this article, please review the available access options below.

    Get instant access

    Purchase Access

    Read this article for 48 hours. Check out below using your ACS ID or as a guest.

    Recommended

    Access through Your Institution

    You may have access to this article through your institution.

    Your institution does not have access to this content. You can change your affiliated institution below.

    Cited By

    This article is cited by 27 publications.

    1. Seyed Mohammad Mostafavi Kashani, Vladimir G. Dubrovskii, Tilo Baumbach, Ullrich Pietsch. In Situ Monitoring of MBE Growth of a Single Self-Catalyzed GaAs Nanowire by X-ray Diffraction. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 2021, 125 (41) , 22724-22732. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcc.1c04255
    2. Simas Rackauskas, Albert G. Nasibulin. Nanowire Growth without Catalysts: Applications and Mechanisms at the Atomic Scale. ACS Applied Nano Materials 2020, 3 (8) , 7314-7324. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsanm.0c01179
    3. Lucas Güniat, Philippe Caroff, Anna Fontcuberta i Morral. Vapor Phase Growth of Semiconductor Nanowires: Key Developments and Open Questions. Chemical Reviews 2019, 119 (15) , 8958-8971. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemrev.8b00649
    4. Philipp Schroth, Mahmoud Al Humaidi, Ludwig Feigl, Julian Jakob, Ali Al Hassan, Arman Davtyan, Hanno Küpers, Abbes Tahraoui, Lutz Geelhaar, Ullrich Pietsch, Tilo Baumbach. Impact of the Shadowing Effect on the Crystal Structure of Patterned Self-Catalyzed GaAs Nanowires. Nano Letters 2019, 19 (7) , 4263-4271. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.9b00380
    5. Seyed Mohammad Mostafavi Kashani, Dominik Kriegner, Danial Bahrami, Jonas Vogel, Arman Davtyan, Ludwig Feigl, Philipp Schroth, Julian Jakob, Tilo Baumbach, Ullrich Pietsch. X-ray Diffraction Analysis of the Angular Stability of Self-Catalyzed GaAs Nanowires for Future Applications in Solar-Light-Harvesting and Light-Emitting Devices. ACS Applied Nano Materials 2019, 2 (2) , 689-699. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsanm.8b01677
    6. Philipp Schroth, Julian Jakob, Ludwig Feigl, Seyed Mohammad Mostafavi Kashani, Jonas Vogel, Jörg Strempfer, Thomas F. Keller, Ullrich Pietsch, and Tilo Baumbach . Radial Growth of Self-Catalyzed GaAs Nanowires and the Evolution of the Liquid Ga-Droplet Studied by Time-Resolved in Situ X-ray Diffraction. Nano Letters 2018, 18 (1) , 101-108. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b03486
    7. Yinyin Qian and Qing Yang . Straight Indium Antimonide Nanowires with Twinning Superlattices via a Solution Route. Nano Letters 2017, 17 (12) , 7183-7190. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b01266
    8. Yunlong Zi, Sergey Suslov, and Chen Yang . Understanding Self-Catalyzed Epitaxial Growth of III–V Nanowires toward Controlled Synthesis. Nano Letters 2017, 17 (2) , 1167-1173. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b04817
    9. Qian Gao, Vladimir G. Dubrovskii, Philippe Caroff, Jennifer Wong-Leung, Li Li, Yanan Guo, Lan Fu, Hark Hoe Tan, and Chennupati Jagadish . Simultaneous Selective-Area and Vapor–Liquid–Solid Growth of InP Nanowire Arrays. Nano Letters 2016, 16 (7) , 4361-4367. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b01461
    10. Heidi Potts, Martin Friedl, Francesca Amaduzzi, Kechao Tang, Gözde Tütüncüoglu, Federico Matteini, Esther Alarcon Lladó, Paul C. McIntyre, and Anna Fontcuberta i Morral . From Twinning to Pure Zincblende Catalyst-Free InAs(Sb) Nanowires. Nano Letters 2016, 16 (1) , 637-643. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b04367
    11. Masamitu Takahasi, Miwa Kozu, Takuo Sasaki, and Wen Hu . Mechanisms Determining the Structure of Gold-Catalyzed GaAs Nanowires Studied by in Situ X-ray Diffraction. Crystal Growth & Design 2015, 15 (10) , 4979-4985. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.cgd.5b00915
    12. V. G. Dubrovskii, T. Xu, A. Díaz Álvarez, S. R. Plissard, P. Caroff, F. Glas, and B. Grandidier . Self-Equilibration of the Diameter of Ga-Catalyzed GaAs Nanowires. Nano Letters 2015, 15 (8) , 5580-5584. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b02226
    13. Hyung Soon Im, Kidong Park, Dong Myung Jang, Chan Su Jung, Jeunghee Park, Seung Jo Yoo, and Jin-Gyu Kim . Zn3P2–Zn3As2 Solid Solution Nanowires. Nano Letters 2015, 15 (2) , 990-997. https://doi.org/10.1021/nl5037897
    14. Thomas Riedl, Vinay S. Kunnathully, Akshay K. Verma, Timo Langer, Dirk Reuter, Björn Büker, Andreas Hütten, Jörg K. N. Lindner. Selective area heteroepitaxy of InAs nanostructures on nanopillar-patterned GaAs(111)A. Journal of Applied Physics 2022, 132 (18) https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0121559
    15. Samra Saleem, Ammara Maryam, Kaneez Fatima, Hadia Noor, Fatima Javed, Muhammad Asghar. Phase Control Growth of InAs Nanowires by Using Bi Surfactant. Coatings 2022, 12 (2) , 250. https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12020250
    16. Julian Jakob, Philipp Schroth, Ludwig Feigl, Mahmoud Al Humaidi, Ali Al Hassan, Arman Davtyan, Daniel Hauck, Ullrich Pietsch, Tilo Baumbach. Correlating in situ RHEED and XRD to study growth dynamics of polytypism in nanowires. Nanoscale 2021, 13 (30) , 13095-13107. https://doi.org/10.1039/D1NR02320A
    17. Evelyne Gil, Yamina Andre. Growth of long III-As NWs by hydride vapor phase epitaxy. Nanotechnology 2021, 32 (16) , 162002. https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/abdb14
    18. Ludwig Feigl, Philipp Schroth. X-ray Methods for Structural Characterization of III-V Nanowires: From an ex-situ Ensemble Average to Time-resolved Nano-diffraction. 2021, 185-250. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-9050-4_4
    19. Julian Jakob, Philipp Schroth, Ludwig Feigl, Daniel Hauck, Ullrich Pietsch, Tilo Baumbach. Quantitative analysis of time-resolved RHEED during growth of vertical nanowires. Nanoscale 2020, 12 (9) , 5471-5482. https://doi.org/10.1039/C9NR09621C
    20. Masamitu Takahasi. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction study on epitaxial-growth dynamics of III–V semiconductors. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 2018, 57 (5) , 050101. https://doi.org/10.7567/JJAP.57.050101
    21. Takuo Sasaki, Masamitu Takahasi. Influence of indium supply on Au-catalyzed InGaAs nanowire growth studied by in situ X-ray diffraction. Journal of Crystal Growth 2017, 468 , 135-138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2016.11.113
    22. Heidi Potts, Nicholas P Morgan, Gözde Tütüncüoglu, Martin Friedl, Anna Fontcuberta i Morral. Tuning growth direction of catalyst-free InAs(Sb) nanowires with indium droplets. Nanotechnology 2017, 28 (5) , 054001. https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/28/5/054001
    23. U P Gomes, D Ercolani, V Zannier, J David, M Gemmi, F Beltram, L Sorba. Nucleation and growth mechanism of self-catalyzed InAs nanowires on silicon. Nanotechnology 2016, 27 (25) , 255601. https://doi.org/10.1088/0957-4484/27/25/255601
    24. Takuo Sasaki, Fumitaro Ishikawa, Tomohiro Yamaguchi, Masamitu Takahasi. Nitride-MBE system for in situ synchrotron X-ray measurements. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 2016, 55 (5S) , 05FB05. https://doi.org/10.7567/JJAP.55.05FB05
    25. Masamitu Takahasi, Miwa Kozu, Takuo Sasaki. Effects of growth temperature and growth rate on polytypes in gold-catalyzed GaAs nanowires studied by in situ X-ray diffraction. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 2016, 55 (4S) , 04EJ04. https://doi.org/10.7567/JJAP.55.04EJ04
    26. Martin Köhl, Philipp Schroth, Tilo Baumbach. Perspectives and limitations of symmetric X-ray Bragg reflections for inspecting polytypism in nanowires. Journal of Synchrotron Radiation 2016, 23 (2) , 487-500. https://doi.org/10.1107/S1600577516000333
    27. U P Gomes, D Ercolani, N V Sibirev, M Gemmi, V G Dubrovskii, F Beltram, L Sorba. Catalyst-free growth of InAs nanowires on Si (111) by CBE. Nanotechnology 2015, 26 (41) , 415604. https://doi.org/10.1088/0957-4484/26/41/415604

    Pair your accounts.

    Export articles to Mendeley

    Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

    Pair your accounts.

    Export articles to Mendeley

    Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

    You’ve supercharged your research process with ACS and Mendeley!

    STEP 1:
    Click to create an ACS ID

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    MENDELEY PAIRING EXPIRED
    Your Mendeley pairing has expired. Please reconnect