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Book series logo

Environmental Interfacial Spectroscopy

Author(s):
Publication Date:
April 14, 2022
Copyright © 2022 American Chemical Society
eISBN:
‍9780841299276
DOI:
10.1021/acsinfocus.7e5016
Read Time:
eight to nine hours
Collection:
1
Publisher:
American Chemical Society
Google Play Store

Clarifying chemical processes in the environment is tantamount to creating a better and a safer planet. The chemistry that takes place within the natural world occurs not only in the bulk gaseous, liquid, and solid phases, but also in the region where two phases meet. This molecularly thin region between phases, also known as an interface, plays a significant role in various chemical processes because interfaces are ubiquitous in nature.

 

Despite the significance of interfacial processes in environmental chemistry, investigating environmental interfaces experimentally has always been a challenge. Recent advances in nonlinear spectroscopy (NLS) have demonstrated that techniques such as sum frequency generation (SFG) and second harmonic generation (SHG) are unique in their ability to probe buried chemical interfaces. The theoretical and practical aspect of these techniques in probing environmental interfaces is the primary focus of this e-book.

 

This e-book is geared toward curious and inquisitive minds eager to learn how molecules behave at the thin layers of chemical interfaces. A beautiful world, rich in unique insights into the interfacial environmental processes, awaits.

Book series logo
Detailed Table of Contents
About the Series
Preface
Chapter 1
The Big Picture
1.1
Introduction
1.2
Interfacial Chemistry—A Fundamental Motivation
1.3
Insider Q&A: Dr. Vicki H. Grassian
1.4
Environmental Interfaces—A Practical Motivation
1.5
Insider Q&A: Dr. Vicki H. Grassian
1.6
Probing Buried Interfaces
1.7
That’s a Wrap
Chapter 2
Interfacial Chemistry and the Environment
2.1
Introduction
2.2
Planar Interfaces
2.2.1
Thermodynamic Treatment of Planar Interfaces
2.3
Adsorption Isotherms
2.3.1
Adsorption Isotherms—Experimental Measurements
2.3.2
Adsorption Isotherm Models
2.4
Thin Films on Liquids
2.5
Interfacial Charge Properties
2.6
Colloids
2.7
That’s a Wrap
Chapter 3
Surface and Interfacial Analysis Tools—An Overview
3.1
Introduction
3.2
“Classical” Surface Analysis Methods
3.3
Survey of Modern Surface Analysis Tools
3.3.1
Surface Probe Microscopy
3.3.2
Particles In–Particles Out
3.4
Interfacial Selectivity of Second-Order NLS
3.5
SFG vs Other Surface Tools
3.6
Insider Q&A: Dr. Elsa Yan
3.7
Computational Modeling of Chemical Interfaces
3.8
That’s a Wrap
Chapter 4
Surface Second Harmonic Generation Spectroscopy
4.1
Introduction
4.2
SHG—A Frequency Doubling Process
4.3
Key Features of SHG and Interfacial Information
4.3.1
Phase Matching
4.3.2
Surface SHG Intensity
4.3.3
Molecular Orientation from χ(2)
4.3.4
Interfacial Population and Adsorption Free Energy
4.3.5
Resonance Enhancement
4.4
SHG from Colloids
4.5
χ(3) Method
4.6
That’s a Wrap
Chapter 5
Sum Frequency Generation and Ultrafast Interfacial Dynamics
5.1
Introduction
5.2
Vibrational SFG
5.3
Electronic Sum Frequency Generation
5.4
Insider Q&A: Prof. Heather C. Allen
5.5
Ultrafast Time-Resolved Interfacial Spectroscopy
5.6
Emerging Ultrafast Two-Dimensional Spectroscopy
5.7
That’s a Wrap
Chapter 6
Environmental Interfaces and Nonlinear Interfacial Spectroscopy
6.1
Introduction
6.2
Air/Water Interface
6.2.1
Neat Air/Water Interface—A Molecular Level Picture
6.2.2
Interfacial H3O+ vs OH—A Tale of Two Ions
6.3
Air/Aqueous Interfaces
6.3.1
Electrolyte Solutions and Adsorption of Inorganic Compounds
6.3.2
Adsorption of Organic Compounds
6.4
Liquid/Water Interfaces
6.5
Vapor/Solid and Aqueous/Solid Interfaces
6.5.1
Interfaces Involving Ice
6.5.2
Mineral Oxides/Aqueous Interfaces
6.5.3
Colloidal Interfaces
6.6
Insider Q&A: Dr. Faye McNeill
6.7
Future Outlook
6.8
That’s a Wrap
6.9
Read These Next
Appendix A
A.1
A Brief Synopsis
A.2
Additional Notes on Chapter 2
A.3
Additional Notes on Chapter 3
A.4
Additional Notes on Chapter 4
A.4.1
Practical Aspects of SHG
A.5
Additional Notes on Chapter 5
A.5.1
Basic Principle of VSFG
A.5.2
Euler Transformation and Orientational Analysis
A.5.3
Microscopic Hyperpolarizability
A.5.4
Local Field Factors
A.5.5
Basic Principle of ESFG
A.5.6
Ultrafast Time-Resolved Interfacial Spectroscopy
A.5.7
Ultrafast Two-Dimensional Spectroscopy
A.5.7.1
2D-VSFG
A.5.7.2
2D-ESFG
A.5.7.3
2D-EVSFG
A.5.8
Experimental Implementation of Advanced SFG Tools
A.5.9
MatLab Codes of Orientational Analysis
A.6
Additional Notes on Chapter 6
Bibliography
Glossary
Index
Reviewer quotes
A serious compendium of the state-of-the-art in nonlinear optics at environmental interfaces that also serves as an intuitive tutorial text
Franz M. Geiger, Northwestern University
Nonlinear optics can be intimidating to first-year graduate students, but Environmental Interfacial Spectroscopy provides an intuitive, chemistry-centric introduction that will lower the barrier to entry and generate excitement.
Written to educate the reader on environmental interfaces and the techniques most commonly used to probe them
Aleia Bellcross, PhD candidate at Northwestern University
I would use and recommend this e-book to a student who is collaborating with a group which uses techniques like SHG and SFG, or is simply interested in environmental interfaces.
Author Info
Mahamud Subir
Mahamud Subir is a physical chemist with expertise in laser spectroscopy and surface science. He is a dedicated teacher-scholar who enjoys bringing the world of advanced chemical topics and hands-on research experience with cutting-edge tools to undergraduate students and budding scientists of diverse background. Subir has earned his B.S. degree in Chemistry from Queens College, CUNY in 2003 and completed his PhD in 2009 under the supervision of Dr. Kenneth Eisenthal. His research focus was in the area of experimental nonlinear interfacial spectroscopy. For his postdoctoral fellowship at McGill University, Subir carried out research involving atmospheric and interfacial processes, in the group of Dr. Parisa Ariya. Thereafter, he joined the Department of Chemistry at Ball State University in 2012, where he is currently an associate professor. His research interest is primarily motivated by chemistry that occurs within the environment and in the realm of nanoscience. Using second harmonic generation spectroscopy as one of the major analytical techniques, Subir and his research group studies fundamental chemical processes at various planar and colloidal interfaces.
author image
Yi Rao
Yi Rao is a physical chemist with expertise in interfacial science, ultrafast spectroscopy, and nonlinear optics. Yi has obtained his PhD in 2003 under the supervision of Dr. Hong-fei Wang, in Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Science. In 2004, he joined Dr. Kenneth Eisenthal’s group at Columbia University as a postdoctoral fellow, in the area of experimental nonlinear interfacial spectroscopy. After his postdoc, Yi continued his career as a research associate, in collaboration with Drs. Nicholas Turro and Kenneth Eisenthal at Columbia University. Before his independent career, Yi worked as a research associate professor in the Department of Chemistry at Temple University in 2014. Yi joined the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at Utah State University as an assistant professor in 2017. His research interest is focused primarily on interfacial physical chemistry for environmental issues, solar energy conversion, and catalysis. Since 2017, Yi’s team has developed several state-of-the-arts interface-specific nonlinear optical spectroscopies for structures and dynamics at different interfaces. Yi is a recipient of National Science Foundation CAREER award.
author image