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Dynamics of a Liquid Droplet

Author(s):
Publication Date:
April 9, 2024
Copyright © 2024 American Chemical Society
eISBN:
‍9780841299993
DOI:
10.1021/acsinfocus.7e8002
Read Time:
four to five hours
Collection:
3
Publisher:
American Chemical Society
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Multiphase flows and droplet dynamics play a vital role in the industry. Mineral ore (i.e., iron, aluminum, and copper mined in huge quantities yearly) must flow at some stage during extraction. Fluidized beds, bubbly flow in nuclear reactors, inkjet printing, gas-particle flows in chemical reactors, cavitating pumps and turbines, electrophotography used in copy machines, and laser and LED printers are a few examples of process technologies where multiphase flows play a vital role. The importance of multiphase flows concerning air pollution has recently been well recognized. In particular, in propulsion devices, such as automobiles and gas turbine engines in aircraft and power plants, the combustion of liquid fuels, such as diesel, gasoline, and Jet-A, is responsible for creating greenhouse gases and particulates (e.g., unburned carbon particles), which are identified as pollutants. The efficiency of the combustion process and, consequently, the production of the resulting pollutants are dictated by the breakup and vaporization of liquid fuels, making understanding these phenomena critical to developing efficient combustion devices.

This ACS In Focus digital primer discusses the current understanding of the breakup and vaporization of single droplets in stagnant and convective environments. Its intended audience is an early career researcher (ranging from a second-year Ph.D. student to a postdoctoral fellow) interested in exploring the fascinating world of liquid droplets. The reader is expected to have had at least an advanced thermodynamics and fluid mechanics undergraduate course.

Book series logo
Detailed Table of Contents
About the Series
Preface
Chapter 1
Surface Tension and Techniques to Study Droplet Dynamics
1.1
Surface Tension
1.2
Thermodynamics of Interfaces
1.3
Temperature Dependence of Surface Tension
1.4
Dependence of Surface Tension on Pressure and Carrier Gases
1.5
Experimental Techniques to Investigate Droplet Dynamics
1.5.1
Shock Tube Experiments
1.5.2
Droplet in an Air Jet
1.5.3
Instrumentation
1.6
Computational Approaches to Investigate Droplet Dynamics
1.6.1
Interface Tracking
1.6.2
Interface Capturing
1.6.2.1
Level-Set Method
1.6.2.2
Volume of Fluid Method
1.7
Chapter Summary
1.8
That’s a Wrap
Chapter 2
Breakup of Newtonian Liquid Droplets
2.1
Liquid Breakup Processes in Combustion Systems
2.2
Some Basics: Common Nondimensional Numbers, Length & Time Scales
2.3
Breakup Physics
2.3.1
Oscillatory Breakup
2.3.2
Bag and Multimode Breakup
2.3.2.1
Bag Breakup
2.3.2.2
Multimode Breakup
2.3.3
Shear/Catastrophic Breakup
2.3.4
Shock–Liquid Interface Interactions
2.4
Chapter Summary
2.5
That’s a Wrap
Chapter 3
Breakup of Non-Newtonian Liquid Droplets
3.1
Constitutive Relations
3.2
Breakup Physics
3.2.1
Breakup of Shear-Thinning Liquid Droplets
3.3
Chapter Summary
3.4
That’s a Wrap
Chapter 4
Fragmenting and Vaporizing Liquid Droplets
4.1
Vaporization of Liquid Droplets in Quiescent Environments—The d 2 Law
4.2
Vaporizing and Fragmenting Droplets in Subsonic Flows
4.3
Vaporizing and Fragmenting Droplets in Shock-Laden Supersonic Flows
4.4
That’s a Wrap
Appendix: List of Symbols
Bibliography
Footnotes
Glossary
Index
Author Info
Prashant Khare
Prashant Khare is an Associate Professor and currently serves as the Associate Department Head & UG Program Chair in the Department of Aerospace Engineering and the Director of Digital Futures' Hypersonics Laboratory at the University of Cincinnati (UC). He earned his M.S. in Mechanical Engineering from the Pennsylvania State University and his Ph.D. from the School of Aerospace Engineering at Georgia Tech. Dr. Khare joined the Department of Aerospace Engineering at UC as an Assistant Professor in 2017. His research explores fundamental turbulent multiphase chemically reacting flows, thermochemical non-equilibrium hypersonic flows, machine learning, and high-performance computing. His work on multiphase flows and droplet dynamics has received several awards, including the W.R. Marshall Award from ILASS and the AIAA Outstanding Scientific Technical Contributions Section Award. Khare is an invitee for the US National Academy of Engineering’s Frontiers of Engineering symposium. He is a recipient of numerous technical awards, some of which include the Georgia Tech 40 Under 40 Award, Penn State COE’s Early Career Award, Penn State MES Early Career Award, and the Sigma Xi Young Investigator Award.
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