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Force-Responsive Networks

Author(s):
Publication Date:
May 6, 2024
Copyright © 2024 American Chemical Society
eISBN:
‍9780841299894
DOI:
10.1021/acsinfocus.7e8003
Read Time:
four to five hours
Collection:
3
Publisher:
American Chemical Society
Google Play Store

This primer provides a precise, high‐level overview of force-responsive networks with practical examples and well-crafted diagrams, fostering a deeper understanding of the subject matter. Force‐responsive networks combine chemistry, polymer science, physics, and mechanical engineering into this interdisciplinary domain. By bridging diverse fields, the primer broadens the academic horizon and highlights the synergistic potential inherent in the intersection of these areas.

 

The authors employ plain language to elucidate complex concepts and cover many basic principles in force‐responsive polymer networks. This primer is well‐suited for senior undergraduate and junior graduate students. It is an ideal reference for advanced materials and engineering classes and is particularly beneficial for students beginning research in force‐responsive materials. Additionally, it offers in‐depth insight into the advanced features of the mechanical properties of polymeric materials.

Book series logo
Detailed Table of Contents
About the Series
Preface
Chapter 1
Polymer Networks
1.1
Overview
1.2
Formation of Networks
1.2.1
Addition/Chain-Growth Mechanism
1.2.2
Step-Growth Polymerization
1.2.3
Gel Point
1.3
General Structure of Networks
1.4
Classification of Networks
1.4.1
Plastics
1.4.2
Elastomers
1.4.3
Gels
1.5
Characterization of Networks
1.5.1
Molecular Structure
1.5.1.1
Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy
1.5.1.2
Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (ssNMR)
1.5.2
Network Topology
1.5.2.1
Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS)
1.5.2.2
Equilibrium Swelling
1.5.2.3
Solvent Permeability
1.5.3
Mechanical Properties
1.5.3.1
Materials’ Response to Mechanical Force
1.5.3.2
Shear, Compressive, and Tensile Analysis
1.5.3.3
Oscillatory Rheology
1.5.3.4
Stress Relaxation
1.5.3.5
Creep and Recovery
1.6
That’s a Wrap
1.7
Read These Next
Chapter 2
Force-Responsive Formation of Networks from Precursor Solutions
2.1
Overview
2.2
Methods to Exert Force to the Polymer Solution
2.2.1
Flow Forces
2.2.2
Ultrasonication
2.3
Mechanoresponsive Network Formation in Biological Systems
2.4
Mechanophore-Mediated Network Formation
2.4.1
Piezoelectric Materials as Inorganic Mechanophores
2.5
Miscellaneous Designs
2.6
That’s a Wrap
2.7
Read These Next
Chapter 3
Force-Responsive Strengthening of Networks
3.1
Overview
3.2
Strain-Stiffening in Biopolymer Networks
3.2.1
Hierarchical Structure of Fibrillar Collagen
3.2.2
Comparison of Conventional Synthetic and Biopolymer Networks
3.2.3
The Strain-Stiffening in Networks Consisting of Semi-Flexible Fibers
3.2.4
Representative Strain-Stiffening Biopolymer Networks
3.3
Bio-inspired Synthetic Strain-Stiffening Networks
3.4
Synthetic Networks with Force-Responsive Permanent Stiffening
3.4.1
Mechanophore-Based Designs
3.4.2
Latent Cross-Linking Designs
3.5
That’s a Wrap
3.6
Read These Next
Chapter 4
Force-Responsive Softening in Networks
4.1
Overview
4.2
Characterization of Shear-Thinning Hydrogels
4.3
Chemical Strategies to Create Mechanosoftening Networks
4.3.1
An Introduction to Physical Associations
4.3.1.1
Electrostatic/Ionic Interactions
4.3.1.2
Hydrogel Bonding Interactions
4.3.1.3
Host–Guest Interactions
4.3.2
Dynamic Covalent Interactions
4.3.2.1
Thiol–Disulfide Exchange Reactions
4.3.2.2
Schiff Base Reactions
4.4
Applications of Shear-Thinning Hydrogels
4.4.1
Minimally Invasive Administration of Bioactive Materials
4.4.2
Three-Dimensional (3D) Bioprinting
4.5
That’s a Wrap
4.6
Read These Next
Bibliography
Index
Reviewer quotes
Bhavesh Deore, University Doctoral Fellow, St. John’s University
I personally liked the overall content of this primer and I appreciate the author’s efforts for putting time and writing down this information. I also liked the level of understanding from chapter 1, which is focused on basic concepts and then going in depth as you keep reading other chapters.
Xiaohui Xu, Presidential Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Princeton University
I strongly recommend that my colleague reads this insightful piece, as it covers a wide span of information in this domain, making it a good reference for polymer network research. I will definitely cite this primer in my future work, especially the strain-stiffening polymer networks section.
Author Info
K. P. Sonu
K. P. Sonu is a postdoctoral research associate in the Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. He is currently working on responsive hydrogels and their incorporation into microfluidic devices for sensing and separation applications. He received a Ph.D. in Materials Chemistry following a M.S. in Materials Sciences from Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research (JNCASR) in Bengaluru, India, as well as a B.Sc. in Chemistry from the University of Calicut, India.
author image
Shelly R. Peyton
Shelly R. Peyton is a Provost Professor of Chemical Engineering at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. She received her Ph.D. in Chemical and Biochemical Engineering from the University of California, Irvine, after her B.S. in Chemical Engineering at Northwestern University. She completed postdoctoral training at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Her research group focuses on developing soft biomaterials as disease models to study cancer and develop methods for high-throughput drug screening and personalized medicine.
author image