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Efficient Labeling of Nanocellulose for High-Resolution Fluorescence Microscopy Applications

  • Mouhanad Babi
    Mouhanad Babi
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1, Canada
  • Ayodele Fatona
    Ayodele Fatona
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1, Canada
  • Xiang Li
    Xiang Li
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1, Canada
    More by Xiang Li
  • Christine Cerson
    Christine Cerson
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1, Canada
  • Victoria M. Jarvis
    Victoria M. Jarvis
    McMaster Analytical X-ray Diffraction Facility, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1, Canada
  • Tiffany Abitbol
    Tiffany Abitbol
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Stockholm 114 28, Sweden
  • , and 
  • Jose M. Moran-Mirabal*
    Jose M. Moran-Mirabal
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1, Canada
    Centre for Advanced Light Microscopy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1, Canada
    Brockhouse Institute for Materials Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1, Canada
    *Email: [email protected]
Cite this: Biomacromolecules 2022, 23, 5, 1981–1994
Publication Date (Web):April 20, 2022
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.biomac.1c01698
Copyright © 2022 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract

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    The visualization of naturally derived cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) and nanocrystals (CNCs) within nanocomposite materials is key to the development of packaging materials, tissue culture scaffolds, and emulsifying agents, among many other applications. In this work, we develop a versatile and efficient two-step approach based on triazine and azide–alkyne click-chemistry to fluorescently label nanocelluloses with a variety of commercially available dyes. We show that this method can be used to label bacterial cellulose fibrils, plant-derived CNFs, carboxymethylated CNFs, and CNCs with Cy5 and fluorescein derivatives to high degrees of labeling using minimal amounts of dye while preserving their native morphology and crystalline structure. The ability to tune the labeling density with this method allowed us to prepare optimized samples that were used to visualize nanostructural features of cellulose through super-resolution microscopy. The efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and versatility of this method make it ideal for labeling nanocelluloses and imaging them through advanced microscopy techniques for a broad range of applications.

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    The authors offer to provide the DTAP linker to any group interested in labeling cellulose using the proposed method, free of charge, with the sole request of acknowledging the donation of the linker in any published manuscript where it is used.

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    The Supporting Information is available free of charge at https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.biomac.1c01698.

    • List of reaction schemes; NMR and mass spectra of synthesized linkers and dyes; AFM and measured lengths, heights, and % Cr of labeled and non-labeled BC, CNCs, CNF, and CM-CNFs; localization density analysis of individual fibrils imaged with SRFM; defibrillation associated with twisting; and stability of labeling following acidic or basic or heating conditions (PDF)

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    Cited By

    This article is cited by 6 publications.

    1. Célestin Bourgery, David Joram Mendoza, Gil Garnier, Louis M. M. Mouterde, Florent Allais. Immobilization of Adenosine Derivatives onto Cellulose Nanocrystals via Click Chemistry for Biocatalysis Applications. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2024, Article ASAP.
    2. Keita Sakakibara, Yoshinobu Tsujii. Visualization of Fibrillated Cellulose in Polymer Composites Using a Fluorescent-Labeled Polymer Dispersant. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 2023, 11 (16) , 6332-6342. https://doi.org/10.1021/acssuschemeng.3c00044
    3. Mouhanad Babi, Alyssa Williams, Marcia Reid, Kathryn Grandfield, Nabil D. Bassim, Jose M. Moran-Mirabal. Unraveling the Supramolecular Structure and Nanoscale Dislocations of Bacterial Cellulose Ribbons Using Correlative Super-Resolution Light and Electron Microscopy. Biomacromolecules 2023, 24 (1) , 258-268. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.biomac.2c01108
    4. Xuehe Jiang, J. Benedikt Mietner, Julien R. G. Navarro. A combination of surface-initiated controlled radical polymerization (SET-LRP) and click-chemistry for the chemical modification and fluorescent labeling of cellulose nanofibrils: STED super-resolution imaging of a single fibril and a single fibril embedded in a composite. Cellulose 2023, 20 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-022-04983-y
    5. Aiswarya Poulose, Jyotishkumar Parameswaranpillai, Jinu Jacob George, Jineesh Ayippadath Gopi, Senthilkumar Krishnasamy, Midhun Dominic C. D., Nishar Hameed, Nisa V. Salim, Sabarish Radoor, Natalia Sienkiewicz. Nanocellulose: A Fundamental Material for Science and Technology Applications. Molecules 2022, 27 (22) , 8032. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27228032
    6. Ruhua Zha, Tuo Shi, Liu He, Min Zhang. Nanoengineering and green chemistry-oriented strategies toward nanocelluloses for protein sensing. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science 2022, 308 , 102758. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cis.2022.102758

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