Pair your accounts.

Export articles to Mendeley

Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

Pair your accounts.

Export articles to Mendeley

Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

You’ve supercharged your research process with ACS and Mendeley!

STEP 1:
Click to create an ACS ID

Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

MENDELEY PAIRING EXPIRED
Your Mendeley pairing has expired. Please reconnect
ACS Publications. Most Trusted. Most Cited. Most Read
My Activity
CONTENT TYPES

Figure 1Loading Img
ADDITION / CORRECTIONThis article has been corrected. View the notice.

The Effect of Compression Ratio, Fuel Octane Rating, and Ethanol Content on Spark-Ignition Engine Efficiency

View Author Information
Ford Motor Company, P.O. Box 2053, Dearborn, Michigan 48121, United States
General Motors Powertrain, 850 Glenwood, Pontiac, Michigan 48340, United States
§ FCA US LLC, 800 Chrysler Drive, Auburn Hills, Michigan 48326, United States
*Phone: 313-248-6857; e-mail: [email protected]
Cite this: Environ. Sci. Technol. 2015, 49, 18, 10778–10789
Publication Date (Web):August 3, 2015
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.5b01420
Copyright © 2015 American Chemical Society

    Article Views

    3895

    Altmetric

    -

    Citations

    LEARN ABOUT THESE METRICS
    Other access options
    Supporting Info (1)»

    Abstract

    Abstract Image

    Light-duty vehicles (LDVs) in the United States and elsewhere are required to meet increasingly challenging regulations on fuel economy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as well as criteria pollutant emissions. New vehicle trends to improve efficiency include higher compression ratio, downsizing, turbocharging, downspeeding, and hybridization, each involving greater operation of spark-ignited (SI) engines under higher-load, knock-limited conditions. Higher octane ratings for regular-grade gasoline (with greater knock resistance) are an enabler for these technologies. This literature review discusses both fuel and engine factors affecting knock resistance and their contribution to higher engine efficiency and lower tailpipe CO2 emissions. Increasing compression ratios for future SI engines would be the primary response to a significant increase in fuel octane ratings. Existing LDVs would see more advanced spark timing and more efficient combustion phasing. Higher ethanol content is one available option for increasing the octane ratings of gasoline and would provide additional engine efficiency benefits for part and full load operation. An empirical calculation method is provided that allows estimation of expected vehicle efficiency, volumetric fuel economy, and CO2 emission benefits for future LDVs through higher compression ratios for different assumptions on fuel properties and engine types. Accurate “tank-to-wheel” estimates of this type are necessary for “well-to-wheel” analyses of increased gasoline octane ratings in the context of light duty vehicle transportation.

    Read this article

    To access this article, please review the available access options below.

    Get instant access

    Purchase Access

    Read this article for 48 hours. Check out below using your ACS ID or as a guest.

    Recommended

    Access through Your Institution

    You may have access to this article through your institution.

    Your institution does not have access to this content. You can change your affiliated institution below.

    Supporting Information

    ARTICLE SECTIONS
    Jump To

    The Supporting Information is available free of charge on the ACS Publications website at DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.5b01420.

    • Further details on spark retard effects on efficiency and basis for estimated vehicle FE gains for higher octane-rated gasoline in existing vehicles (PDF)

    Terms & Conditions

    Electronic Supporting Information files are available without a subscription to ACS Web Editions. The American Chemical Society holds a copyright ownership interest in any copyrightable Supporting Information. Files available from the ACS website may be downloaded for personal use only. Users are not otherwise permitted to reproduce, republish, redistribute, or sell any Supporting Information from the ACS website, either in whole or in part, in either machine-readable form or any other form without permission from the American Chemical Society. For permission to reproduce, republish and redistribute this material, requesters must process their own requests via the RightsLink permission system. Information about how to use the RightsLink permission system can be found at http://pubs.acs.org/page/copyright/permissions.html.

    Cited By

    This article is cited by 106 publications.

    1. David S. Hirshfeld, Jeffrey A. Kolb, James E. Anderson, Asim Iqbal, Michael E. Moore, William M. Studzinski, Ian Sutherland. Refining Economics of Higher Octane Sensitivity, Research Octane Number and Ethanol Content for U.S. Gasoline. Energy & Fuels 2021, 35 (18) , 14816-14827. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.1c00247
    2. Sandra Correa Gonzalez, Yuri Kroyan, Teemu Sarjovaara, Ulla Kiiski, Anna Karvo, Arpad I. Toldy, Martti Larmi, Annukka Santasalo-Aarnio. Prediction of Gasoline Blend Ignition Characteristics Using Machine Learning Models. Energy & Fuels 2021, 35 (11) , 9332-9340. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.1c00749
    3. James E. Anderson, Timothy J. Wallington. Novel Method to Estimate the Octane Ratings of Ethanol–Gasoline Mixtures Using Base Fuel Properties. Energy & Fuels 2020, 34 (4) , 4632-4642. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.9b04204
    4. Peter C. St. John, Seonah Kim, Robert L. McCormick. Development of a Data-Derived Sooting Index Including Oxygen-Containing Fuel Components. Energy & Fuels 2019, 33 (10) , 10290-10296. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.9b02458
    5. Gina M. Fioroni, Lisa Fouts, Earl Christensen, James E. Anderson, Robert L. McCormick. Measurement of Heat of Vaporization for Research Gasolines and Ethanol Blends by DSC/TGA. Energy & Fuels 2018, 32 (12) , 12607-12616. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.8b03369
    6. Spencer Lunderman, Gina M. Fioroni, Robert L. McCormick, Mark R. Nimlos, Mohammad J. Rahimi, Ray W. Grout. Screening Fuels for Autoignition with Small-Volume Experiments and Gaussian Process Classification. Energy & Fuels 2018, 32 (9) , 9581-9591. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.8b02112
    7. Hao Cai, Jennifer Markham, Susanne Jones, Pahola Thathiana Benavides, Jennifer B. Dunn, Mary Biddy, Ling Tao, Patrick Lamers, Steven Phillips. Techno-Economic Analysis and Life-Cycle Analysis of Two Light-Duty Bioblendstocks: Isobutanol and Aromatic-Rich Hydrocarbons. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 2018, 6 (7) , 8790-8800. https://doi.org/10.1021/acssuschemeng.8b01152
    8. Chongming Wang, Jose Martin Herreros, Changzhao Jiang, Amrit Sahu, and Hongming Xu . Engine Thermal Efficiency Gain and Well-to-Wheel Greenhouse Gas Savings When Using Bioethanol as a Gasoline-Blending Component in Future Spark-Ignition Engines: A China Case Study. Energy & Fuels 2018, 32 (2) , 1724-1732. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.7b02110
    9. Jennifer B. Dunn, Mary Biddy, Susanne Jones, Hao Cai, Pahola Thathiana Benavides, Jennifer Markham, Ling Tao, Eric Tan, Christopher Kinchin, Ryan Davis, Abhijit Dutta, Mark Bearden, Christopher Clayton, Steven Phillips, Kenneth Rappé, and Patrick Lamers . Environmental, Economic, and Scalability Considerations and Trends of Selected Fuel Economy-Enhancing Biomass-Derived Blendstocks. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 2018, 6 (1) , 561-569. https://doi.org/10.1021/acssuschemeng.7b02871
    10. Peter C. St. John, Paul Kairys, Dhrubajyoti D. Das, Charles S. McEnally, Lisa D. Pfefferle, David J. Robichaud, Mark R. Nimlos, Bradley T. Zigler, Robert L. McCormick, Thomas D. Foust, Yannick J. Bomble, and Seonah Kim . A Quantitative Model for the Prediction of Sooting Tendency from Molecular Structure. Energy & Fuels 2017, 31 (9) , 9983-9990. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.7b00616
    11. Lintao Bu, Peter N. Ciesielski, David J. Robichaud, Seonah Kim, Robert L. McCormick, Thomas D. Foust, and Mark R. Nimlos . Understanding Trends in Autoignition of Biofuels: Homologous Series of Oxygenated C5 Molecules. The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 2017, 121 (29) , 5475-5486. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpca.7b04000
    12. Leanne S. Whitmore, Ryan W. Davis, Robert L. McCormick, John M. Gladden, Blake A. Simmons, Anthe George, and Corey M. Hudson . BioCompoundML: A General Biofuel Property Screening Tool for Biological Molecules Using Random Forest Classifiers. Energy & Fuels 2016, 30 (10) , 8410-8418. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b01952
    13. Yihuan Cao, Haiguang Zhao, Shaojun Zhang, Xian Wu, James E. Anderson, Wei Shen, Timothy J. Wallington, Ye Wu. Impacts of ethanol blended fuels and cold temperature on VOC emissions from gasoline vehicles in China. Environmental Pollution 2024, 348 , 123869. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2024.123869
    14. Atmadeep Bhattacharya, Karri Keskinen, Martti Larmi, Pinaki Pal, Yuri Kroyan, Teemu Sarjovaara, Ossi Kaario. Fuel-air mixing in motored CFR engine at research octane number (RON) relevant condition. International Journal of Engine Research 2024, 25 (4) , 727-742. https://doi.org/10.1177/14680874231206198
    15. David N. Carruthers, Jinho Kim, Daniel Mendez-Perez, Eric Monroe, Nick Myllenbeck, Yuzhong Liu, Ryan W. Davis, Eric Sundstrom, Taek Soon Lee. Microbial production of high octane and high sensitivity olefinic ester biofuels. Biotechnology for Biofuels and Bioproducts 2023, 16 (1) https://doi.org/10.1186/s13068-023-02301-7
    16. Patricia Anselmi, Leo Jan, Mickaël Matrat, Giampaolo Maio, Boyang Xu. Renewable fuel and blend properties for the reduction of GHG emissions under different spark-ignited engine architectures. Fuel 2023, 353 , 129194. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2023.129194
    17. Papla Venugopal Inbanaathan, Dhinesh Balasubramanian, Van Nhanh Nguyen, Van Vang Le, Makatar Wae-Hayee, Ravikumar R, Ibham Veza, Nagarajan Yukesh, M.A. Kalam, Ankit Sonthalia, Edwin Geo Varuvel. Comprehensive study on using hydrogen-gasoline-ethanol blends as flexible fuels in an existing variable speed SI engine. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 2023, 48 (99) , 39531-39552. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2023.03.107
    18. Tianbo Tang, Cavan McCaffery, Tianyi Ma, Peng Hao, Thomas D. Durbin, Kent C. Johnson, Georgios Karavalakis. Expanding the ethanol blend wall in California: Emissions comparison between E10 and E15. Fuel 2023, 350 , 128836. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2023.128836
    19. Diego Golke, Marcelo Rohrig, Thompson Diordinis Metzka Lanzanova, Mario Eduardo Santos Martins, Fernando Windlin, Guilherme Alegre. Potential of ozone addition on dethrottling of a gasoline/ethanol blend-fueled direct injection spark ignition engine in part load. International Journal of Engine Research 2023, 24 (6) , 2523-2537. https://doi.org/10.1177/14680874221123611
    20. Tasneem Muhammed, Begum Tokay, Alex Conradie. Raising the Research Octane Number using an optimized Simulated Moving Bed technology towards greater sustainability and economic return. Fuel 2023, 337 , 126864. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2022.126864
    21. Shuwen Xiao, Hongqing Feng, Xinyi Wang, Xuemeng Li, Zhirong Nan, Chaohe Yang. Study on the Effects of Ethanol-gasoline Octane Number on Anti-knock Performance in Direct-injection Gasoline Engine. Combustion Science and Technology 2023, 195 (3) , 530-556. https://doi.org/10.1080/00102202.2021.1966774
    22. Zhenbiao Zhou, Yi Yang, Michael Brear, Tanmay Kar, Thomas Leone, James Anderson, Michael Shelby, Joshua Lacey. The significance of octane numbers to hybrid electric vehicles with turbocharged direct injection engines. Fuel 2023, 334 , 126604. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2022.126604
    23. Roland Allmägi, Marcis Jansons, Kaie Ritslaid, Risto Ilves. Ethanol Utilization in Spark-Ignition Engines and Emission Characteristics. 2023, 255-277. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-36542-3_10
    24. Junfeng Huang, Jianbing Gao, Yufeng Wang, Ce Yang, Chaochen Ma. Real-World Pipe-Out Emissions from Gasoline Direct Injection Passenger Cars. Processes 2023, 11 (1) , 66. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11010066
    25. C. Nandakumar, C.G. Saravanan, Vallinayagam Raman, M. Vikneswaran, J. Sasikala, J.S. Femilda Josephin, Edwin Geo Varuvel. Ternary gasoline – Pomegranate peel oil (PPO)- tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA) blend as an enabler to improve the spark-ignited engine performance and emissions. Fuel 2022, 329 , 125396. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2022.125396
    26. Andreas Benjamin Ofner, Achilles Kefalas, Stefan Posch, Bernhard Claus Geiger. Knock Detection in Combustion Engine Time Series Using a Theory-Guided 1-D Convolutional Neural Network Approach. IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics 2022, 27 (5) , 4101-4111. https://doi.org/10.1109/TMECH.2022.3144832
    27. Yubeen Yang, Young Soo Yu, Minuk Jeong, Sungwook Park. Mixture formation enhancement in a direct-injection spark-ignition engine using horizontal injection. Fuel 2022, 326 , 125121. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2022.125121
    28. Tianshu Chen, Liubin Huang, Xin Zhang, Rui Gao, Hong Li, Kai Fan, Dun Ma, Zhaokun Ma, Likun Xue, Wenxing Wang. Effects of coal chemical industry on atmospheric volatile organic compounds emission and ozone formation in a northwestern Chinese city. Science of The Total Environment 2022, 839 , 156149. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.156149
    29. Abhijit Dutta, Gina M. Fioroni, Earl D. Christensen, Cameron K. Hays, Lisa Fouts, Suphat Watanasiri, Robert L. McCormick. Model-based compositional predictions for a differential scanning calorimetry/thermogravimetric analysis-mass spectrometry system used for heat of vaporization measurements. Fuel 2022, 318 , 123550. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2022.123550
    30. Lily Behnke, Eric Monroe, Bernard Nguyen, Alexander Landera, Anthe George, Zhibin Yang, Joshua Heyne, Ryan W. Davis. Maximizing net fuel economy improvement from fusel alcohol blends in gasoline using multivariate optimization. Fuel Communications 2022, 11 , 100059. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfueco.2022.100059
    31. Shang Liu, Hao Zhang, Qinhao Fan, Wei Wang, Yunliang Qi, Zhi Wang. Investigation of combustion and particle number (PN) emissions in a spark induced compression ignition (SICI) engine for ethanol-gasoline blends. Fuel 2022, 316 , 123155. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2022.123155
    32. I. Schifter, C. González-Macías, Isidro Mejía-Centeno. Merit function for simultaneous optimization of fuel properties, naturally aspirated spark-ignition engines equipped with port fuel injection system, and regulated emissions. Fuel 2022, 313 , 122701. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2021.122701
    33. Lee R. Lynd, Gregg T. Beckham, Adam M. Guss, Lahiru N. Jayakody, Eric M. Karp, Costas Maranas, Robert L. McCormick, Daniel Amador-Noguez, Yannick J. Bomble, Brian H. Davison, Charles Foster, Michael E. Himmel, Evert K. Holwerda, Mark S. Laser, Chiam Yu Ng, Daniel G. Olson, Yuriy Román-Leshkov, Cong T. Trinh, Gerald A. Tuskan, Vikas Upadhayay, Derek R. Vardon, Lin Wang, Charles E. Wyman. Toward low-cost biological and hybrid biological/catalytic conversion of cellulosic biomass to fuels. Energy & Environmental Science 2022, 15 (3) , 938-990. https://doi.org/10.1039/D1EE02540F
    34. Gopinath Dhamodaran, Ganapathy Sundaram Esakkimuthu, Thennarasu Palani. Feasibility of adding N-Butanol and di isopropyl ether with gasoline on its physico-chemical properties. Petroleum Science and Technology 2022, 40 (4) , 486-503. https://doi.org/10.1080/10916466.2021.2003383
    35. Gina M. Fioroni, Mohammad J. Rahimi, Charles K. Westbrook, Scott W. Wagnon, William J. Pitz, Seonah Kim, Robert L. McCormick. Chemical kinetic basis of synergistic blending for research octane number. Fuel 2022, 307 , 121865. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2021.121865
    36. Ravi Farkhan PRATAMA, Cahyo Setyo WİBOWO, Nur Allif FATHURRAHMAN, Edy HARTULİSTİYOSO. An experimental investigation of gasoline-methanol (M5-M10) blends on performance in SI engine. Uluslararası Yakıtlar Yanma Ve Yangın Dergisi 2021, 9 (1) , 30-41. https://doi.org/10.52702/fce.939775
    37. Hayri Yaman, Murat Kadir Yesilyurt. The influence of n-pentanol blending with gasoline on performance, combustion, and emission behaviors of an SI engine. Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal 2021, 24 (6) , 1329-1346. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jestch.2021.03.009
    38. Mengzhu Zhang, Yunshan Ge, Xin Wang, Jianwei Tan, Lijun Hao, Hongming Xu. Particulate emissions from direct-injection and combined-injection vehicles fueled with gasoline/ethanol match-blends – Effects of ethanol and aromatic compositions. Fuel 2021, 302 , 121010. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2021.121010
    39. Zhenbiao Zhou, Tanmay Kar, Yi Yang, Michael Brear, Thomas G. Leone, James E. Anderson, Michael H. Shelby, Eric Curtis, Joshua Lacey. The significance of octane numbers to drive cycle fuel efficiency. Fuel 2021, 302 , 121095. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2021.121095
    40. Michał Wojcieszyk, Lotta Knuutila, Yuri Kroyan, Mário de Pinto Balsemão, Rupali Tripathi, Juha Keskivali, Anna Karvo, Annukka Santasalo-Aarnio, Otto Blomstedt, Martti Larmi. Performance of Anisole and Isobutanol as Gasoline Bio-Blendstocks for Spark Ignition Engines. Sustainability 2021, 13 (16) , 8729. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13168729
    41. Jianfeng Pan, Biao Cheng, Jiayu Tao, Baowei Fan, Yangxian Liu, Peter Otchere. Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Blending Ethanol on Combustion Characteristic and Idle Performance in a Gasoline Rotary Engine. Journal of Thermal Science 2021, 30 (4) , 1187-1198. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11630-021-1487-3
    42. Ali Qasemian, Sina Jenabi Haghparast, Pouria Azarikhah, Meisam Babaie. Effects of Compression Ratio of Bio-Fueled SI Engines on the Thermal Balance and Waste Heat Recovery Potential. Sustainability 2021, 13 (11) , 5921. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13115921
    43. R S Hidayatullah, I W Susila, I M Arsana, Warju, S R Ariyanto. The Effectiveness of Using Variations in Fuel Against Engine Performance 4 Steps 100 CC with Compression Ratio 8:1. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 2021, 1125 (1) , 012120. https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/1125/1/012120
    44. Zhenbiao Zhou, Tanmay Kar, Yi Yang, Michael Brear, Jingran Xu, Joshua Lacey, Thomas Leone, James Anderson, Michael Shelby, Eric Curtis. Mapping K factor variations and its causes in a modern, spark-ignition engine. Fuel 2021, 290 , 120012. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2020.120012
    45. Abdulfatah Abdu Yusuf, Freddie L. Inambao. Progress in alcohol-gasoline blends and their effects on the performance and emissions in SI engines under different operating conditions. International Journal of Ambient Energy 2021, 42 (4) , 465-481. https://doi.org/10.1080/01430750.2018.1531261
    46. Diego Golke, Marcelo Rohrig, Geovane Alberto Frizzo Prante, Thompson Diórdinis Metzka Lanzanova, Mario Eduardo Santos Martins. Efeitos da Variação dos Eventos de Válvulas na Combustão, Desempenho e Emissões de um Motor de Ignição por Centelha operando em Carga Parcial com Etanol. 2021, 549-560. https://doi.org/10.5151/simea2021-PAP125
    47. Nigel N. Clark, David L. McKain, Tammy Klein, Terence S. Higgins. Quantification of gasoline-ethanol blend emissions effects. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2021, 71 (1) , 3-22. https://doi.org/10.1080/10962247.2020.1754964
    48. Zongyu Yue, Sibendu Som. Fuel property effects on knock propensity and thermal efficiency in a direct-injection spark-ignition engine. Applied Energy 2021, 281 , 114221. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.114221
    49. James P. Szybist, Stephen Busch, Robert L. McCormick, Josh A. Pihl, Derek A. Splitter, Matthew A. Ratcliff, Christopher P. Kolodziej, John M.E. Storey, Melanie Moses-DeBusk, David Vuilleumier, Magnus Sjöberg, C. Scott Sluder, Toby Rockstroh, Paul Miles. What fuel properties enable higher thermal efficiency in spark-ignited engines?. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 2021, 82 , 100876. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pecs.2020.100876
    50. Lily Behnke, Eric Monroe, Bernard Nguyen, Alexander Landera, Anthe George, Zhibin Yang, Joshua Heyne, Ryan Davis. Maximizing Net Fuel Economy Improvement from Fusel Alcohol Blends in Gasoline Using Multivariate Optimization. SSRN Electronic Journal 2021, 10 https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3994508
    51. Hao Yuan, Karl Giles, Sipeng Zhu, Simeon Howson, Andrew Lewis, Sam Akehurst, Niall Turner, James Harris, Gavin Fowler, John Geddes. Kinetic modelling of combustion in a spark ignition engine with water injection. Fuel 2021, 283 , 118814. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2020.118814
    52. Junshi Xu, Ran Tu, An Wang, Zhiqiang Zhai, Marianne Hatzopoulou. Generation of spikes in ultrafine particle emissions from a gasoline direct injection vehicle during on-road emission tests. Environmental Pollution 2020, 267 , 115695. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115695
    53. Mingsheng Wen, Chuanqi Zhang, Zongyu Yue, Xinlu Liu, Yong Yang, Fang Dong, Haifeng Liu, Mingfa Yao. Effects of Gasoline Octane Number on Fuel Consumption and Emissions in Two Vehicles Equipped with GDI and PFI Spark-Ignition Engine. Journal of Energy Engineering 2020, 146 (6) https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)EY.1943-7897.0000722
    54. Scott Sluder, Nolan Perry. Potential Impacts of High-Octane Fuel Introduction in a Naturally Aspirated, Port Fuel-Injected Legacy Vehicle. 2020https://doi.org/10.4271/2020-01-5117
    55. Alexandre Milovanoff, I. Daniel Posen, Bradley A. Saville, Heather L. MacLean. Well-to-wheel greenhouse gas implications of mid-level ethanol blend deployment in Canada's light-duty fleet. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2020, 131 , 110012. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2020.110012
    56. Lotta Knuutila, Ossi Kaario, Martti Larmi, Annukka Santasalo-Aarnio, Anna Karvo, Ulla Kiiski. Blending Behavior of Hydrocarbon and Oxygenate Molecules to Optimize RON and MON for Modern Spark-Ignition Engines (SI). 2020https://doi.org/10.4271/2020-01-2145
    57. Jennifer B. Dunn, Emily Newes, Hao Cai, Yimin Zhang, Aaron Brooker, Longwen Ou, Nicole Mundt, Arpit Bhatt, Steve Peterson, Mary Biddy. Energy, economic, and environmental benefits assessment of co-optimized engines and bio-blendstocks. Energy & Environmental Science 2020, 13 (8) , 2262-2274. https://doi.org/10.1039/D0EE00716A
    58. Andrew Moskalik, Kevin Newman. Assessment of Changing Relationships between Vehicle Fuel Consumption and Acceleration Performance. 2020https://doi.org/10.4271/2020-01-5067
    59. David C. Dayton, Thomas D. Foust. Optimized Biofuels for High-Efficiency, Low-Emission Engines. 2020, 129-145. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-815605-6.00009-3
    60. Saeid Aghahossein Shirazi, Bahareh Abdollahipoor, Bret Windom, Kenneth F. Reardon, Thomas D. Foust. Effects of blending C3-C4 alcohols on motor gasoline properties and performance of spark ignition engines: A review. Fuel Processing Technology 2020, 197 , 106194. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2019.106194
    61. Xian Wu, Shaojun Zhang, Xin Guo, Zhengjun Yang, Jiaqian Liu, Liqiang He, Xuan Zheng, Lu Han, Huan Liu, Ye Wu. Assessment of ethanol blended fuels for gasoline vehicles in China: Fuel economy, regulated gaseous pollutants and particulate matter. Environmental Pollution 2019, 253 , 731-740. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.07.045
    62. Matthew A. Ratcliff, Bret Windom, Gina M. Fioroni, Peter St. John, Stephen Burke, Jonathan Burton, Earl D. Christensen, Petr Sindler, Robert L. McCormick. Impact of ethanol blending into gasoline on aromatic compound evaporation and particle emissions from a gasoline direct injection engine. Applied Energy 2019, 250 , 1618-1631. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.05.030
    63. C. Scott Sluder. Analytical Examination of the Relationship between Fuel Properties, Engine Efficiency, and R Factor Values. SAE International Journal of Advances and Current Practices in Mobility 2019, 1 (2) , 706-716. https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0309
    64. Weichang Yuan, H. Christopher Frey, Tongchuan Wei, Nikhil Rastogi, Steven VanderGriend, David Miller, Lawrence Mattison. Comparison of real-world vehicle fuel use and tailpipe emissions for gasoline-ethanol fuel blends. Fuel 2019, 249 , 352-364. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2019.03.115
    65. Chongming Wang, Yanfei Li, Cangsu Xu, Tawfik Badawy, Amrit Sahu, Changzhao Jiang. Methanol as an octane booster for gasoline fuels. Fuel 2019, 248 , 76-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2019.02.128
    66. C. Scott Sluder. Estimation of the Fuel Efficiency Potential of Six Gasoline Blendstocks Identified by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines Program. SAE International Journal of Advances and Current Practices in Mobility 2019, 1 (1) , 189-200. https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0017
    67. Danilo Arcentales, Carla Silva. Exploring the Introduction of Plug-In Hybrid Flex-Fuel Vehicles in Ecuador. Energies 2019, 12 (12) , 2244. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12122244
    68. Luca Barazzoni, Brian Sangeorzan, Dan DelVescovo. Modelling of a Discrete Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) System for Fuel Consumption Evaluation - Part 2: Modelling Results. 2019https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0472
    69. Hao Yuan, Zhewen Lu, Zhongyuan Chen, Yi Yang, Michael J. Brear, James E. Anderson, Thomas Leone. Oxidation of ethanol and hydrocarbon mixtures in a pressurised flow reactor. Combustion and Flame 2019, 199 , 96-113. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.combustflame.2018.10.011
    70. Seonah Kim, Gina M. Fioroni, Ji-Woong Park, David J. Robichaud, Dhrubajyoti D. Das, Peter C. St. John, Tianfeng Lu, Charles S. McEnally, Lisa D. Pfefferle, Robert S. Paton, Thomas D. Foust, Robert L. McCormick. Experimental and theoretical insight into the soot tendencies of the methylcyclohexene isomers. Proceedings of the Combustion Institute 2019, 37 (1) , 1083-1090. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proci.2018.06.095
    71. Amir F. N. Abdul-Manan, Gautam Kalghatgi, Hassan Babiker. Exploring Alternative Octane Specification Methods for Improved Gasoline Knock Resistance in Spark-Ignition Engines. Frontiers in Mechanical Engineering 2018, 4 https://doi.org/10.3389/fmech.2018.00020
    72. Yong Qian, Jinjing Guo, Yahui Zhang, Wencao Tao, Xingcai Lu. Combustion and emission behavior of N-propanol as partially alternative fuel in a direct injection spark ignition engine. Applied Thermal Engineering 2018, 144 , 126-136. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2018.08.044
    73. R.L. Sari, D. Golke, H.J. Enzweiler, N.P.G. Salau, F.M. Pereira, M.E.S. Martins. Exploring optimal operating conditions for wet ethanol use in spark ignition engines. Applied Thermal Engineering 2018, 138 , 523-533. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2018.04.078
    74. Matthew A. Ratcliff, Jonathan Burton, Petr Sindler, Earl Christensen, Lisa Fouts, Robert L. McCormick. Effects of Heat of Vaporization and Octane Sensitivity on Knock-Limited Spark Ignition Engine Performance. 2018https://doi.org/10.4271/2018-01-0218
    75. Stephanie M. Seki, W. Michael Griffin, Chris Hendrickson, H. Scott Matthews. Refueling and Infrastructure Costs of Expanding Access to E85 in Pennsylvania. Journal of Infrastructure Systems 2018, 24 (1) https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)IS.1943-555X.0000408
    76. Kai Morganti, Mohammed Almansour, Ahmad Khan, Gautam Kalghatgi, Steven Przesmitzki. Leveraging the benefits of ethanol in advanced engine-fuel systems. Energy Conversion and Management 2018, 157 , 480-497. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2017.11.086
    77. S. Kent Hoekman, Amber Broch, Xiaowei (Vivian) Liu. Environmental implications of higher ethanol production and use in the U.S.: A literature review. Part I – Impacts on water, soil, and air quality. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2018, 81 , 3140-3158. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.05.050
    78. S. Kent Hoekman, Amber Broch. Environmental implications of higher ethanol production and use in the U.S.: A literature review. Part II – Biodiversity, land use change, GHG emissions, and sustainability. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2018, 81 , 3159-3177. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.05.052
    79. Gautam Kalghatgi, Richard Stone. Fuel requirements of spark ignition engines. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering 2018, 232 (1) , 22-35. https://doi.org/10.1177/0954407016684741
    80. Gautam Kalghatgi, Bengt Johansson. Gasoline compression ignition approach to efficient, clean and affordable future engines. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering 2018, 232 (1) , 118-138. https://doi.org/10.1177/0954407017694275
    81. Gautam Kalghatgi. Knock onset, knock intensity, superknock and preignition in spark ignition engines. International Journal of Engine Research 2018, 19 (1) , 7-20. https://doi.org/10.1177/1468087417736430
    82. Kai Morganti, Marwan Al-Abdullah, Abdullah Alzubail, Gautam Kalghatgi, Yoann Viollet, Robert Head, Ahmad Khan, Amir Abdul-Manan. Synergistic engine-fuel technologies for light-duty vehicles: Fuel economy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Applied Energy 2017, 208 , 1538-1561. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.08.213
    83. Xiaowei Liu, S. Kent Hoekman, Amber Broch. Potential water requirements of increased ethanol fuel in the USA. Energy, Sustainability and Society 2017, 7 (1) https://doi.org/10.1186/s13705-017-0121-4
    84. Rafael L. Sari, Diego Golke, Henrique J. Enzweiler, Kelvin F. Santos, Nina P. G. Salau, Mario E. S. Martins, Fernando M. Pereira. Investigation of Compression Ratio Effect on Wet Ethanol Use in Spark Ignition Engines. 2017https://doi.org/10.4271/2017-36-0208
    85. Kai Morganti, Yoann Viollet, Robert Head, Gautam Kalghatgi, Marwan Al-Abdullah, Abdullah Alzubail. Maximizing the benefits of high octane fuels in spark-ignition engines. Fuel 2017, 207 , 470-487. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2017.06.066
    86. I. Schifter, U. González, L. Díaz, G. Sánchez-Reyna, I. Mejía-Centeno, C. González-Macías. Comparison of performance and emissions for gasoline-oxygenated blends up to 20 percent oxygen and implications for combustion on a spark-ignited engine. Fuel 2017, 208 , 673-681. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2017.07.065
    87. S. Scott Goldsborough, Simone Hochgreb, Guillaume Vanhove, Margaret S. Wooldridge, Henry J. Curran, Chih-Jen Sung. Advances in rapid compression machine studies of low- and intermediate-temperature autoignition phenomena. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 2017, 63 , 1-78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pecs.2017.05.002
    88. David Vuilleumier, Magnus Sjöberg. The Use of Transient Operation to Evaluate Fuel Effects on Knock Limits Well beyond RON Conditions in Spark-Ignition Engines. 2017https://doi.org/10.4271/2017-01-2234
    89. K. Gopal Duleep. The Benefits of Increasing Fuel Octane Number on Gasoline Engine Efficiency: A Literature Review. 2017https://doi.org/10.4271/2017-01-2237
    90. Jihad Badra, Abdullah S. AlRamadan, S. Mani Sarathy. Optimization of the octane response of gasoline/ethanol blends. Applied Energy 2017, 203 , 778-793. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.06.084
    91. R. L. SARI, M. D. NORA, M. E. S. MARTINS, H. J. ENZWEILER, D. GOLKE, K. DOS SANTOS. INVESTIGAÇÃO DO USO DE ELEVADAS RAZÕES DE COMPRESSÃO COM ETANOL HIDRATADO ATRAVÉS DA ANÁLISE DE LIBERAÇÃO DE CALOR. 2017, 569-581. https://doi.org/10.5151/engpro-simea2017-43
    92. Robert D. De Kleine, James E. Anderson, Hyung Chul Kim, Timothy J. Wallington. Life cycle assessment is the most relevant framework to evaluate biofuel greenhouse gas burdens. Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining 2017, 11 (3) , 407-416. https://doi.org/10.1002/bbb.1752
    93. Chongming Wang, Soheil Zeraati-Rezaei, Liming Xiang, Hongming Xu. Ethanol blends in spark ignition engines: RON, octane-added value, cooling effect, compression ratio, and potential engine efficiency gain. Applied Energy 2017, 191 , 603-619. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.01.081
    94. Thomas L. Darlington, Gary A. Herwick, Dennis Kahlbaum, Dean Drake. Modeling the Impact of Reducing Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions with High Compression Engines and High Octane Low Carbon Fuels. 2017https://doi.org/10.4271/2017-01-0906
    95. Keith Vertin, Brent Schuchmann, William Studzinski, Richard S. Davis, Thomas G. Leone, James E. Anderson, Asim Iqbal. Gasoline Anti-Knock Index Effects on Vehicle Net Power at High Altitude. SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants 2017, 10 (2) , 262-286. https://doi.org/10.4271/2017-01-0801
    96. Robert L. McCormick, Gina Fioroni, Lisa Fouts, Earl Christensen, Janet Yanowitz, Evgueni Polikarpov, Karl Albrecht, Daniel J. Gaspar, John Gladden, Anthe George. Selection Criteria and Screening of Potential Biomass-Derived Streams as Fuel Blendstocks for Advanced Spark-Ignition Engines. SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants 2017, 10 (2) , 442-460. https://doi.org/10.4271/2017-01-0868
    97. Miao Tian, Robert L. McCormick, Matthew A. Ratcliff, Jon Luecke, Janet Yanowitz, Pierre-Alexandre Glaude, Michel Cuijpers, Michael D. Boot. Performance of lignin derived compounds as octane boosters. Fuel 2017, 189 , 284-292. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2016.10.084
    98. Martin L Wissink, Derek A Splitter, Adam B Dempsey, Scott J Curran, Brian C Kaul, Jim P Szybist. An assessment of thermodynamic merits for current and potential future engine operating strategies. International Journal of Engine Research 2017, 18 (1-2) , 155-169. https://doi.org/10.1177/1468087416686698
    99. Bo Zhang, S. Mani Sarathy. Lifecycle optimized ethanol-gasoline blends for turbocharged engines. Applied Energy 2016, 181 , 38-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.08.052
    100. Alexandre Z. Guarato, Epifanio M. Ticona, Sergio L. Braga. Development of a flex-fuel rotary engine with variable compression ratio. 2016https://doi.org/10.4271/2016-36-0218
    Load all citations