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Determination of the Thermal Noise Limit of Graphene Biotransistors

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Department of Physics, Linfield College, McMinnville, Oregon 97128, United States
Department of Physics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331, United States
§ Kavli Institute at Cornell for Nanoscale Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, United States
Cite this: Nano Lett. 2015, 15, 8, 5404–5407
Publication Date (Web):July 15, 2015
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b01788
Copyright © 2015 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract

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    To determine the thermal noise limit of graphene biotransistors, we have measured the complex impedance between the basal plane of single-layer graphene and an aqueous electrolyte. The impedance is dominated by an imaginary component but has a finite real component. Invoking the fluctuation–dissipation theorem, we determine the power spectral density of thermally driven voltage fluctuations at the graphene/electrolyte interface. The fluctuations have 1/fp dependence, with p = 0.75–0.85, and the magnitude of fluctuations scales inversely with area. Our results explain noise spectra previously measured in liquid-gated suspended graphene devices and provide realistic targets for future device performance.

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    Supporting Information

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    Control experiments to determine parasitic capacitance. Quantum capacitance of single-layer graphene. Z(f) for devices of different area. Phase angle as a function of gate voltage. Source-drain current fluctuations caused by liquid-gate Johnson noise compared to fluctuations caused by channel-resistance Johnson noise. The Supporting Information is available free of charge on the ACS Publications website at DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b01788.

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    Cited By

    This article is cited by 7 publications.

    1. Morgan A. Brown, Michael S. Crosser, Agatha C. Ulibarri, Carly V. Fengel, Ethan D. Minot. Hall Effect Measurements of the Double-Layer Capacitance of the Graphene–Electrolyte Interface. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 2019, 123 (37) , 22706-22710. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcc.9b03935
    2. Alison J. Downard, Anna K. Farquhar, Paula A. Brooksby. Measuring the Capacitance at Few- and Many-Layered Graphene Electrodes in Aqueous Acidic Solutions. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 2018, 122 (11) , 6103-6108. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcc.7b12493
    3. Da Zhang, Paul Solomon, Shi-Li Zhang, and Zhen Zhang . Correlation of Low-Frequency Noise to the Dynamic Properties of the Sensing Surface in Electrolytes. ACS Sensors 2017, 2 (8) , 1160-1166. https://doi.org/10.1021/acssensors.7b00285
    4. Mykola Fomin, Lara Jorde, Florian Steinbach, Changjiang You, Carola Meyer. Liquid‐Gated Graphene Field‐Effect Transistors for Biosensing on Lipid Monolayers. physica status solidi (b) 2023, 111 https://doi.org/10.1002/pssb.202300324
    5. Dmitry Kireev, Silke Seyock, Mathis Ernst, Vanessa Maybeck, Bernhard Wolfrum, Andreas Offenhäusser. Versatile Flexible Graphene Multielectrode Arrays. Biosensors 2017, 7 (4) , 1. https://doi.org/10.3390/bios7010001
    6. Dmitry Kireev, Silke Seyock, Johannes Lewen, Vanessa Maybeck, Bernhard Wolfrum, Andreas Offenhäusser. Graphene Multielectrode Arrays as a Versatile Tool for Extracellular Measurements. Advanced Healthcare Materials 2017, 6 (12) https://doi.org/10.1002/adhm.201601433
    7. Jinglei Ping, A. T. Charlie Johnson. Quantifying the intrinsic surface charge density and charge-transfer resistance of the graphene-solution interface through bias-free low-level charge measurement. Applied Physics Letters 2016, 109 (1) https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4955404

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