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Hydrochloric Acid: An Overlooked Driver of Environmental Change

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Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Environment Centre Wales, Deiniol Road, Bangor, LL57 2UW, United Kingdom
Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4AP, United Kingdom
§ Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bush Estate, Penicuik, Midlothian, EH26 0QB, United Kingdom
*Tel: +44 1248 374500; e-mail: [email protected]
Cite this: Environ. Sci. Technol. 2011, 45, 5, 1887–1894
Publication Date (Web):February 2, 2011
Copyright © 2011 American Chemical Society

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    Research on the ecosystem impacts of acidifying pollutants, and measures to control them, has focused almost exclusively on sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) compounds. Hydrochloric acid (HCl), although emitted by coal burning, has been overlooked as a driver of ecosystem change because most of it was considered to redeposit close to emission sources rather than in remote natural ecosystems. Despite receiving little regulatory attention, measures to reduce S emissions, and changes in energy supply, have led to a 95% reduction in United Kingdom HCl emissions within 20 years. Long-term precipitation, surface water, and soil solution data suggest that the near-disappearance of HCl from deposition could account for 30−40% of chemical recovery from acidification during this time, affecting both near-source and remote areas. Because HCl is highly mobile in reducing environments, it is a more potent acidifier of wetlands than S or N, and HCl may have been the major driver of past peatland acidification. Reduced HCl loadings could therefore have affected the peatland carbon cycle, contributing to increases in dissolved organic carbon leaching to surface waters. With many regions increasingly reliant on coal for power generation, HCl should be recognized as a potentially significant constituent of resulting emissions, with distinctive ecosystem impacts.

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    Tables of observed precipitation (S1), surface water (S2) and soil water chemistry (S3), and a discussion of the potential impact on nonmarine Na deposition on results. This information is available free of charge via the Internet at

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